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Antiquarian Books Science, Medicine, & Technology CATALOGUE 42 Agassiz, Ampére, Bernoulli, Berzelius, Bolzano, Boole, Cauchy Dalton, Davy, Euler, Galileo, Gauss, Gibbs, Helmholtz, Hutton Kepler, Lagrange, Laplace, Lavoisier, Lobachevsky Maclaurin, Maxwell, Mendeleev, Morton, Newton Pander, Pasteur, Piccolomini, Riemann Rumford, Steno, Volta, Young THE ANTIQUARIAN SCIENTIST • RAYMOND V. GIORDANO • P.O. BOX 448 SOUTHAMPTON, MA 01073 U.S.A. Telephone: 413.529.2731 Email: [emailprotected]

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Antiquarian Books Science, Medicine, & Technology· Antiquarian Books Science, Medicine, & Technology CATALOGUE 42 Agassiz, Ampére, Bernoulli, Berzelius, Bolzano, Boole, Cauchy - [PDF Document] (3)

Antiquarian Books Science, Medicine, &

Technology

CATALOGUE 42

Agassiz, Ampére, Bernoulli, Berzelius, Bolzano, Boole, Cauchy Dalton, Davy, Euler, Galileo, Gauss, Gibbs, Helmholtz, Hutton

Kepler, Lagrange, Laplace, Lavoisier, Lobachevsky Maclaurin, Maxwell, Mendeleev, Morton, Newton

Pander, Pasteur, Piccolomini, Riemann Rumford, Steno, Volta, Young

THE ANTIQUARIAN SCIENTIST • RAYMOND V. GIORDANO •

P.O. BOX 448 SOUTHAMPTON, MA 01073 U.S.A. Telephone: 413.529.2731 Email: [emailprotected]

Antiquarian Books Science, Medicine, & Technology· Antiquarian Books Science, Medicine, & Technology CATALOGUE 42 Agassiz, Ampére, Bernoulli, Berzelius, Bolzano, Boole, Cauchy - [PDF Document] (4)

The Antiquarian Scientist Since 1976

Telephone orders (8 AM to 9 PM EST) are recommended. Email orders will be acknowledged and filled in the order received. Orders from the trade and from overseas may be billed at our discretion. Institutional billing requirements will be accommodated. Foreign draft payments should be in U.S.dollars on an U.S. bank. Bank transfer payments may be made directly to our account for which there is a $15 incoming wire bank fee. Any additional incurred bank charges will be billed to the customer. For wire transfers only:

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Front cover: Monochrome woodcut of a magnified snowflake, James

Glashier, item no. 246

Sections (item numbers) Astronomy 1 20

Chemistry 21 104 General Science 105 109

Geology & Mineralogy 110 117 Life Sciences 118 167 Mathematics 168 – 215 Photography 216 – 217

Physics 218 – 285 Scientific Instruments 286 – 313

Author Index and Bibliography: see end pages

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ASTRONOMY

Neptune Predicted

1. ADAMS, JOHN COUCH (181992). An explanation of the observed irregularities in the motion of Uranus, on the hypothesis of disturbances caused by a more distant planet. London: printed by W. Clowes & Sons, 1846.

The mathematical prediction of an eighth planet (Neptune) by the English astronomer went unrecognized at first, the credit instead went to Leverrier's work that led to Galle's sighting in

September 1846. Heralds of Science 16. Milestones of Science 1. Epochal Achievements 24: "a triumph of gravitational astronomy." H.F. Norman Lib. Cat. 7. $3,000.

The Stars for Navigators 1a. BROOKE, HENRY. A guide to the stars… in either hemisphere, particularly those that are useful for finding longitude and latitude at sea. With twelve planispheres, on a new construction… London: Taylor and Hessey, 1820. This is among the first star atlases to entirely abandon the use of constellation figures. The 'new construction' noted in the title depicts the stars as they actually appear in relation to each other. Brooke, who had been a mariner, innovatively includes information on 120 stars for making determinations of latitude and longitude at sea. Houzeau, 'Vademecum de l'astronomie', no. 2930. $900. 2. COSTARD, GEORGE (171082). The history of astronomy, with its application to geography, history, and chronology; occasionally exemplified by the globes. London: J. Lister for J. Newberry, 1767. An attractively produced book by the Vicar of Twickenham that is dedicated to the Earl of Morton, the then president of the Royal Society. Intended for students, the history is amply illustrated. A second edition appeared in 1775. Houzeau & Lancaster 20. Crawford Lib., p.146. Sotheran/Zeitlinger, vol.1, no. 874 with a quotation from Agnes Clerke. $800.

The Epochal Books of Galileo and Kepler Published with Gassendi's Astronomy Text

An Important Copy from Colonial America

3. GASSENDI, PETRI (15921655). Institutio astronomica…, cui accesserunt GALILEI GALILEI (15641642), Nuncius sidereus et JOHANNIS KEPLERI (15711630), Dioptrice. London: Hen. Dickinson, 1683. Not previously in commerce, this historical volume was acquired from the estate of Frank Williams Oliver, Esq., (19202006), the greatgreatgrandson of the Third Hollis Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at Harvard, Samuel Williams (17431817). Oliver inherited family books and manuscripts going back to Warham and John Williams (on this notable American family see R.F. Rothschild, 'Two Brides for Apollo the life of Samuel Williams', 2009). Rev. Colman

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played a role in convincing Thomas Hollis to endow the chair eventually occupied by Samuel Williams (178088). Colman had graduated Harvard College in 1692 and returned to take a master's degree in 1695. Thereafter he sailed for England but lost nearly all his possessions, though evidently not this book, to a French privateer ship. On his return to America he became the first minister of the Brattle Street Church, a post he held for nearly half a century. In 1721 Colman published a tract on smallpox inoculation which was also published at London and Dublin in 1722. In 1729 an article by Colman on the October 1727 earthquake appeared in the Phil. Trans. On Colman: C.A. Elliott, 'Biog. Dict. Amer. Sci., p. 60 and E. Turell, 'The life and character of the Reverend Benjamin Colman', Boston, 1749. Not commonly recognized, but ably documented by Mel Gorman over fifty years ago in the journal ISIS (Dec. 1964) in his pioneering paper 'Gassendi in America', Gassendi's book was adopted in the early days of Harvard College as a textbook. Gorman writes: "Among books of serious purpose, few are ephemeral as textbooks. Consequently, it is to be expected that extant copies of the 'Institutio' having autographed evidence of use in colonial and postRevolutionary America are not numerous." Of the 1653 and 1683 editions, Gorman located only one with the ownership of a Harvard graduate in the 17th century: Thomas Shephard's (165885) dated 1675/6 at the Boston Athenaeum. Colman's copy, offered here, adds another. William Brattle (16621717), a Harvard graduate in 1680, signed his name in his Gassendi in 1705. Post 1700 ownerships recorded by Gorman include copies owned by a small number of Harvard students including James Otis and John Winthrop. James Logan of Philadelphia and a few others outside of Harvard are known by preserved copies or by documentary evidence that they owned copies in the 18th century. The Colman copy, long in the hands of the Williams family is likely to have been on the shelves of books of Samuel Williams, Harvard's Third Hollis Professor. It is known that as late as the early 19th century Nathaniel Bowditch (17731838) owned a copy of the 1683 edition. Hence, Gorman writes: "It is evident that Gassendi's influence in America was widespread, being very active for at least fifty years following 1675, and not dwindling completely until commencement of the nineteenth century." It is with this textbook and its influence on early American publications such as almanacs that the Copernican system and ultimately Newtonian science was promulgated. Cinti 155. Favarro 355. Casper 98. Wing G293. $8,500.

With an Early Woodcut Diagram and a Poem on the Copernican Solar System 4. GEMMA, CORNELIUS (153578). De arte cyclognomica, tomi III. Antwerp: Christopher Plantin, 1569. "But the success of the 'De Revolutionibus' does not imply the success of its central thesis. The faith of most astronomers in the earth's stability was at first unshaken. Authors who applauded Copernicus' erudition, borrowed his diagrams, or quoted his determination of the distance from the earth to the moon, usually either ignored the earth's motion or dismissed it as absurd. Even the rare text that mentioned Copernicus' hypothesis with respect rarely defined or used it." (T.S. Kuhn, 'The Copernican revolution', 1957). Cornelius Gemma like his famous father, Gemma Frisius (150888), was a physician and professor at the University of Louvain. Both Gemmas valued Copernicus. It has been shown by Prof. Owen Gingerich that Gemma Frisius' copy of 'De revolutionibus' is the most extensively annotated from the sixteenth century. Cornelius in his 'Ephemerides' of 1561 wrote, 'That is why, neglecting then the principles of the Ancients, I turned towards the 'Prutenic Tables' (these were established by Erasmus Reinhold from 'De Revolutionibus'), admiring that divine genius of Copernicus. On page 122 of vol. 1 in the present work is a fine, large woodcut of the Copernican solar system followed by a 28line poem and a brief description of the subject which is in accord with Cornelius' cosmocritical thinking. The woodcut is entitled, 'Sphaera Revolutionum D. N. Copernicus'. This precedes the first published Copernican universe to appear in England (Digges, 1576).

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Gemma's 'cyclognomic art' presents an arrangement of seven concentric circles depicting a universal philosophy that brought together inferiors and celestials, nature, soul and intellect, numbers, ideas and external objects. Also of a note in this handsome work [due to the wellexecuted woodcuts of Antoon Van Leest (b. 1545)] is a detailed depiction of the eye with a hollow optic nerve (vol. 1, p. 85) and a large allegorical woodcut (vol. 2, p. 96). "Until recently he has been almost totally neglected by scholars, although he played an important role in the intellectual map of the second half of the sixteenth century." (sarton.UGent.be). In reviewing this book, the recent proceedings of a conference on Cornelius Gemma (H. Hiras, ed. 'Cornelius Gemma: Cosmology, Medicine and Natural Philosophy in Renaissance Louvain', Pisa & Rome, 2008) has been relied upon. Chapter 1 contains a relevant study by Fernand Hallyn, 'A poem on the Copernican System: Cornelius Gemma and his cosmocritical art.' Also see: L. Thorndike, 'Hist. magic & exper. sci.', vol. 6, pp. 406409. N.L.M. (16th C.), no. 2041. Wellcome I.2734. Bierens de Haan 1590. $4,500.

Presentation Copy of Privately Printed Atlas of Stellar Spectra 5. HUGGINS, WILLIAM, SIR (18241910) and LADY HUGGINS (18481915). Atlas of representative stellar spectra from λ4870 to λ3300, together with a discussion of the evolutional order of the stars, and the interpretation of their spectra. Preceded by a short history of the observatory and its work. London: William Wesley and Son, 1899. "In January 1899, Huggins informed Hale he was planning 'to bring out our new spectra in a privately printed volume'. …Their principal motivation for publishing the book was 'to place in the hands of those interested in the subject representative spectra of the principal classes of stars through a long range of wavelength, together with scales attached, sufficient for the determination of the approximate positions of the stronger lines.' They spared no effort in preparing the volume's twelve plates. To produce 'the most truthful representation of the photographs' required 'many trials and much consideration'. …The Hugginses eventually settled for a scale of enlargement that sacrificed some detailed structure in order to reproduce correctly the tone of the originals. …The folio book, 'An Atlas of Representative Stellar Spectra', was identified on the title page as the first volume of the 'Publications of Sir William Huggins's Observatory.' …Reviewers admired the volume as 'magnificent', 'striking' and 'beautifully printed and bound'. All took delight in the penandink illustrations contributed by Margaret Huggins. …In the 'Edinburgh Review', Agnes Clerke as few others could drew attention to Margaret's scientific contributions to the work." (B.J. Becker, 'Uravelling Starlight William and Margaret Huggins and the rise of the new astronomy', 2011, pp. 272273). Volume 2 'Scientific papers of Sir William Huggins' finally appeared in 1909 as a quarto. D.S.B. 6: 540643. $1,250.

Important Presentation Copy of the Very Rare First Issue 6. IZARN, JOSEPH (17661834). Lithologie atmosphérique. Paris: Delalain fils, 1803.

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The rare first issue (second issue entitled: 'Des Pierres tómbées du Ciel') of an important book on the origin and physical/chemical nature of meteorites by the French physician and professor of physics, Joseph Izarn. Not until the accurate chemical analyses of E. Howard in 1802, confirmed by both Vauquelin and Klaproth in 1803, was there definite evidence that stones did fall from the atmosphere. Izarn, therefore, critically reviews the evidence and theories at a crucial time in his book on the subject. Dedicated to Laplace, who had suggested that the stones came from lunar volcanoes, Izarn also noted in his dedication E. Howard and L. Vauquelin. The first section of the book reviews and abstracts papers from the year 1700 onward by Pictet, Vauquelin, Sage, Darcet and others. In the second section, Izarn examines their results and conclusions, while in the third section, he presents his own theory. In 1804, Izarn published a comprehensive book on galvanism. All citing the second issue: Poggendorff I.1174; Sotheran/Zeitlinger, 1st suppl., no.4265; Cole 678; Ferchl, p.255; Roller & Goodman I. 584; Neville Lib. I. 683. $2,400.

Hungarian Treatise with Handcolored Constellation Charts 7. KATONA, MIHÁLY (17641822). A 'föld' mathematica leírása. RévKomárom: Weinmüllerné, 1814. A very rare book, the most uptodate and exhaustive treatment of physical geography/natural history/astronomy of its time in the Hungarian language. Katona was nationally recognized as an expert in geography with expertise on questions in astronomy as well. Not in any of the usual bibliographies or collections. OCLC shows British Library only, however their catalogue does not record the book. $1,700.

"…changed the course of optics…" (D.S.B) 8. KEPLER, JOHANN (15711630). Ad vitellionem paralipomena, quibus astronomiae pars optica traditur. Frankfurt: C. Marnius & Heirs of J. Aubrius, 1604. "Kepler's 'Optics' is a tremendously rich book. With all its new ideas, as well as numerous loose ends, it set the agenda for much of the study of light in the seventeenth century. Astronomers, in the first place, could take up its theoretical and instrumental ideas; natural philosophers explored its new vision of vision; mathematicians (the young Descartes among them) found a treasure of puzzles of optical imagery and an invitation to make conic sections fruitful; physicians discovered a new basis to reassess eye troubles." (Review of the new English translation, ISIS, vol. 95, no. 2, 2004). "Kepler argues that all the rays incident on the eye from any specific point on the object will arrive at a single point on the retina after refraction in the eye's humors. In consequence, the retina receives an unconfused, although inverted, image of the object. Kepler also presents experimental results, examining, for instance, the range of applicability of Ptolemy's direct proportionality between the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction; and he formulates the principle that the intensity of illumination is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the illuminating source." (C.L. Parkinson, 'Breakthroughs', 1985, pp. 6162). D.S.B. 7: 289312, esp. 295299. Sotheran/Zeitlinger, vol.2, no.10097. Caspar 18. Zinner 3993. Houzeau, 'Vade mecum de l'astronomie', no. 665. $18,500.

Polyhedral Theory of Kepler's Planetary Orbits 9. KEPLER, JOHANN (15711630). Prodromus dissertationum cosmographicarum, continens Mysterium Cosmographicum de admirabili proportione orbium coelestium. Bound with (as required): Pro suo opera Harmonices Mundi Apoligia. Frankfurt: Godefried Tampach, 16211622.

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The 'Mysterium cosmographicum' ('The secret of the universe') first appeared in small quarto format at Tübingen in 1596 in an edition of only 200 copies (Caspar 6). Twentyfive years later it was republished in folio format with notes and additions. To this second edition, Kepler added a 50page 'Apologia' with its own title page (1622), a defense of his 'Harmonices mundi' from the attack of Robert Fludd. The first part now includes a new dedicatory epistle, a reprint of Rheticus' 'Narratio prima', which when first published in 1540 contained the first announcement of the Copernican system, and Mästlin's (Kepler's mentor) treatise on the dimensions of the orbits and celestial spheres.To the 'Mysterium', Kepler updated the text with annotations which included his three laws of planetary motion. "Almost all the astronomical books written by Kepler (notably the 'Astronomia nova' and the 'Harmonice mundi') are concerned with the further development and completion of themes that were introduced in the 'Mysterium cosmographicum'. The ideas of this work did not constitute just a passing fancy of youth but rather the seeds from which Kepler's mature astronomy grew. When a new edition was called for, he decided against changing the text itself, for a complete revision would have required the inclusion of all the main ideas of his other books …Instead, he simply added explanatory notes and references to his definitive accounts of various topics given elsewhere, especially in the 'Harmonices mundi' and the 'Epitome astronomiae copernicanae'. " ('Introduction' by E.J. Aiton to the English translation of the present edition by A.M. Duncan, N.Y., 1981). "Kepler's first book introduced the cosmological idea that motivated his entire astronomical career: the spacing of the planets is determined by a nesting of spheres and regular solids. Kepler's neoPlatonic fascination with the perfect solids as the key to the solar system's structure continued to the end of his life." (O. Gingerich, 'Rara astronomica', Harvard Lib. Bull., April 1971, no. 26, 27). An appealing, large copy in its unrestored contemporary binding with lighter than usual browning. Caspar 67 & 68. Milestones of Science 115. Barchas Coll. 1155. Houzeau & Lancaster 2841. Zinner 4871 and 4909. $42,500.

The Original French Edition Followed by the First Edition in English

Laplace's System of the World

10. LAPLACE, PIERRESIMON (17491827). Exposition du systéme du monde. Paris: CercleSocial, An IV (1796). Laplace delivered ten lectures over ten weeks beginning in January 1795 at the École Normale. "As often happens, the courses proved more important to the teachers than to the students. Attendance was spotty. By early April 1795 many pupils had drifted away. The École Normale closed at the end of April, and Laplace never gave the lectures his program envisaged on rational mechanics, the differential and integral calculus, and astronomy. Instead, he referred his auditors to a book he had in preparation, to be entitled 'Description du systéme du monde', in which he would give a nonmathematical account of all that had been discovered in these subjects. …the promised book proved to be one of the most successful works of science ever composed. (Charles C. Gillispie, 'PierreSimon Laplace, 17491827, A life in exact science', 1997). Laplace prepared six editions of the 'Exposition', the last appearing posthumously in 1835. In the sixth book of the 'Exposition' is Laplace's nebular hypothesis in which he "…argued that the planetary system formed from the primitive solar atmosphere, which extended beyond the orbit of the outermost planet. As this atmosphere cooled and condensed, it left a succession of rings in the plane of the solar equator that ultimately coalesced to form individual planets." (J. Lankford, 'Hist. astro. an encyclopedia', 1997). Milestones of Science 123. Houzeau & Lancaster 8940. See: PMM 252. $3,250.

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10a. LAPLACE, PIERRE SIMON (17491827). The system of the world. Translated from the French by J. Pond. London: Richard Phillips, 1809. The first edition of Laplace's 'Exposition du systéme du monde' appeared in 1796, the nonmathematical forerunner of his massive 'Mécanique celeste'. This work is "… a handbook of what was known of cosmology at the end of the eighteenth century" (D.S.B.), and contains in its last chapter Laplace's speculations on the origin of the solar system (named his 'nebular hypothesis') and on the nature of the universe beyond its confines. The translator, John Pond (17671836), was Astronomer Royal from 1811 and is known for his improvement of methods and instruments used at Greenwich. D.S.B. 15: 341345. Houzeau & Lancaster 8940. Milestones of Science 123. See: PMM 252. $1,400.

Canals on Mars 11. LOWELL, PERCIVAL (18551916). Mars. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin, 1895. "In 1894 he founded the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, where he reported seeing 'canals' (now known to be optical effects and natural formations) on the surface of Mars. …Influenced strongly by the work of Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli, Lowell set up his observatory at Flagstaff originally with the sole intention of confirming the presence of advanced life forms on Mars. He thought he could make out a complex and regular network of canals and regular seasonal variations that to him indicated agricultural activity." ('Random House Webster's Dictionary of Scientists'). $975.

Four Offprints on Mars Signed by Percival Lowell 12. LOWELL, PERCIVAL (18551916). (a). Mars. Offprint: Astronomy and Astrophysics. n.d. (1894). (b). On Martian Longitudes. Chicago. Univ. Chicago Press, 1895. Offprint: The Astrophysical Journal, May 1895 (c). Brontes, a study in Marian 'canal' development. Offprint: Popular Astronomy. n.d. (1905) . (d). Temperature of Mars. A determination of the solar heat received. Offprint: Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts & Sciences. March, 1907 . $1,750.

Mason, of the MasonDixon Line, Improves the Lunar Tables 13. MAYER, JOHANN TOBIAS (172362). Mayer's lunar tables, improved by Mr. Charles Mason. London: P. Elmsley, 1787.

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These revised tables first appeared in 1780, while this edition "… continued long to be the best extant." (D.N.B.). Mayer's widow had his 'Tabulae mottum solis et lunae' published in 1770, and they were used by Maskelyne to compute the lunar and solar ephemerides for the early editions of the 'Nautical Almanac'. On the background for this see: W. J. H. Andrewes, 'The quest for longitude', 1996, pp. 155156. $1,250.

Early German Rocket Design 14. NEBEL, RUDOLF (18941978). Raketenflug. Berlin: Raketenflugverlag Reinickendorf, 1932. In 1927, the engineer and first assistant of Hermann Oberth, R. Nebel, became involved in the founding of the Society for Space Travel. In 1929, he built with Oberth their first liquid fuel rocket, which at the time was thought to be the first of the type to lift off the ground until they learned of Goddard's priority. Interlibrum, Cat. 310, no. 205. $750.

Piazzi's Palermo Observatory Handbook 15. [PIAZZI, GIUSEPPE (17641836)]. Lezioni elementary di astronomia ad uso del Real Osservatorio d. Palermo. Palermo: Stamperia Reale, 1817. The Italian astronomer, Giuseppe Piazzi set up Royal Observatory at Palermo which opened in 1790 as the southernmost European observatory with advantageous observing conditions. The great masterpiece of 18th century technology, the Ramsden fivefoot vertical circle became an important feature of the installation. From this perch, Piazzi discovered Ceres (1801), the small planet between Mars and Jupiter. In addition, Piazzi published in 1813 a large catalogue of stars. In 1817 he published the present work, a detailed, technical handbook for astronomers' use at the Palermo observatory. In volume two are particulars on Ceres and a note of Vesta. Plate II illustrates various instruments including the Ramsden circle. Very scarce. D.S.B. 10: 591593. Houzeau & Lancaster 9275. $2,450.

The First Printed Star Atlas (1540) 16. PICCOLOMINI, ALESSANDRO (150878). De la sfero del mondo. Libri Quattro… De le stele fisse. Libro uno… Venice: per Giouanantonio & Dominico fratelli de Volpini da Castelgiofredo… Tien per insegna il Pozzo, Del messe de Aprile, 1540 (colophon). "Alessandro Piccolomini, a resident of Siena and an archbishop, was an early popularizer of science, being a clear and entertaining expositor. His choice of Italian rather than Latin set a precedent for Bruno and Galileo. …Most memorable of Piccolomini's efforts is this set of fortyeight (sic) xylographic star charts, included in the pair of popularizations, 'On the Sphere of the Universe' and 'On the Fixed Stars'. The Lownes example is the first of numerous editions printed from the same woodblocks during the sixteenth century. On the charts the stars are classified into four magnitude categories, each designated by a separate symbol. Piccolomini's Roman lettering system was a good try, but has been superseded by Bayer's scheme of Greek letters." ('Renaissance books of science from

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the collection of Albert E. Lownes', 1970, entry by Prof. Owen Gingerich). O. Gingerich, 'Piccolomini's star atlas', Sky and Telescope, Dec. 1981, pp. 532534. O. Gingerich, 'Rara astronomica', Harvard Lib. Bull., April 1971, no. 13. B. Brown, 'Astro. atlases, maps & charts', 1932, p. 17. D. Warner, 'Sky explored', 1979, p. 200 with two facsimile charts. Riccardi I.268.1. Barchas Coll. 1654., Crawford Lib., p. 357. $8,750. 17. PLAYFAIR, JOHN (17481819). Remarks on the astronomy of the Brahmins. Offprint: Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh, 1789. Best known for his 'Illustrations of the Huttonian theory of the Earth' (1802), a landmark in British geology, this is Playfair's third scientific paper published in the journal which he edited. Playfair compares in detail the accuracy of four sets of early astronomical tables from India with those of European origin, eg. Cassini, Mayer Bailly, Ptolemy. The methods of Lagrange Laplace, Delalande, etc. are frequently employed. Playfair's "Lady" (Caroline Herschel?) must have had a known interest in the subject to have been expected to appreciate this paper. $850.

The Modern Classic of Celestial Mechanics 18. POINCARÉ, HENRI (18541912). Les méthodes nouvelles de la mécanique céleste. Paris: GauthierVillars, 189299. "...Poincaré remains... the mathematician who after Newton did the most remarkable work in celestial mechanics. ...The works of Poincaré on celestial mechanics contrasted sharply with those of his predecessors. ... (He) inaugurated the rigorous treatment of celestial mechanics, in opposition to the semiempirical computations that had been prevalent before him. ...Most of his results were developed in his famous threevolume 'Les méthodes nouvelles de la mécanique céleste..." (D.S.B.). Ekelöf Cat. 1600. Poggendorff IV. 1178. $1,600.

Smyth's Observatory at Hartwell

His Attempt at a Standard for Recording the Colors of Stars 19. SMYTH, WILLIAM HENRY (17881865). The cycle of celestial objects continued at the Hartwell Observatory to 1859. With a notice of recent discoveries, including details from the Aedes Hartwellianae. London: printed for private circulation by John Bowyer Nichols and Sons, 1860. William Henry Smyth and his son, Charles Piazzi Smyth (18191900), were both observational astronomers. The elder Smyth published his first set of observations in 1844 (vol. 2: 'The Bedford Catalogue'). Towards the end of his life he supplemented it with a record of his observations on double stars in the present publication. Also included is a complete account of his observatory at Hartwell, its instruments, library, and personnel. A summary history of astronomy and remarks on sections of his previous 'Cycle' precede the new observations. Smyth also provides an extended account with quotations of the discovery of the new planet Neptune. This large volume ends with an ode to the doublestar gammaVirginis. See King's 'Hist. telescope' for facsimile of the transit room plate (fig. 77). Crawford Lib., p.421. R.A.S. Lib. Cat. (1886), p.341. Not in Houzeau & Lancaster. SMYTH, WILLIAM HENRY. Sidereal chromatics; being a reprint, with additions from the "Bedford Cycle of Celestial Objects", and its "Hartwell Continuation", on the colours of multiple stars. London: printed for private circulation by John Bowyer Nichols and Sons, 1864.

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"Back in 1863, when Huggins and Miller were examining the spectra of stars, Smyth was preparing to publish a monograph on the science of star colour (the present book). He asked several seasoned observers, including Huggins, to examine binary pairs of contrasting colour and give their expert opinion on them." (B.J. Becker, 'Unravelling starlight', 2011, pp. 106111). Admiral Smyth's color work thereby contributed to the eventual understanding of the cause of the differences in star color. $950.

"…the first systematic accurate synthesis of celestial mechanics that an educated layperson could understand"

20. SOMERVILLE, MARY (17801872). Mechanism of the heavens. London: J. Murray, 1831. The 'Queen of NineteenthCentury Science', Mary Somerville, "…is best known for her work explaining the mathematical and scientific works of others. …Her first book, published in 1831, was 'The Mechanism of the Heavens', which explained Pierre Simon Laplace's book on celestial mechanics, and added many of Somerville's own ideas. Celestial mechanics is best understood by people who have working knowledge of calculus, but Somerville made certain that intelligent lay people with no training in advanced mathematics could understand her book. She had approached the project of writing the book with some anxiety because she did not have a college education. Somerville was so fearful about the book's success that she insisted that her work be kept secret, and if her editors did not like the manuscript, she wanted it destroyed. The book was a smashing success. It was the first systematic accurate synthesis of celestial mechanics that an educated layperson could understand." ('Notable Mathematicians', 1997). P. Phillips, 'The Scientific Lady', 1990, pp. 113114 where it is noted that the print run was limited to 750 copies. M. B. Ogilvie, 'Women in Science', 1986, pp. 161166. M. Alic, 'Hypathia's Heritage', pp. 185186. D.S.B. 12: 521525. $1,800.

CHEMISTRY

A Nobel Prize Winning Doctoral Thesis 21. ARRHENIUS, SVANTE (18591927). Recherches sur la conductibilite galvanique des electolytes. I, II. Stockholm: Kongl. Boktryckeriet, 1884. "In 1903, for the same thesis (the present memoir) that had barely earned him a passing grade in his doctor's examination, he won the Nobel Prize in chemistry." (I. Asimov, ‘Biog. Encyclo. Sci.’, 1972). These memoirs appeared in the supplement series to the 'Proceedings of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences'. Herein is the germ of the theory of electrolytic dissociation, the revolutionary concept of electrically charged atoms which ran counter to the centuryold view of Dalton's structureless and indivisible atom. Few doctoral dissertations in science become landmark works, and of those, none have had such a lackluster beginning. D.S.B. 1: 296302. Partington IV. 67476. See: GM 709. $1,000.

With the Rare First Edition of the First Volume 22. BANCROFT, EDWARD (17441821). Experimental researches concerning the philosophy of permanent colours. London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 17941813. "The first complete edition of an important book on dyeing and calico printing, in which the author announced important discoveries. Born in Massachusetts… (Bancroft) emigrated to England, where he obtained an M.D. and in 1773 was elected F.R.S. At the outbreak of the American

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Revolution he was employed by the British as a double agent and also acted as a spy for Benjamin Franklin. …In 1785 he secured special rights by act of Parliament for the importing and use of a certain kind of oak bark in calico printing. A valuable account and discussion of the theory of colors and methods of fixing them is contained in the present work." (Neville I. 68). At the time of the appearance of the second volume in 1813, the 1794 first volume was already scarce, and according to the Preface in the 1813 second edition of volume one, second hand copies were being sold at up to six times their original price. Edelstein 2778. Partington III. 90 & 515516. Biblio. Tinctoria, pp. 4445. $1,500. 23. BAUMÉ, ANTOINE (17281804). Manuel de chymie, ou exposé des opérations et des produits d'un cours de chymie. Paris: Didot..., 1763. The scarce first edition of the French apothecary and chemist, Antoine Baumé's manual of chemistry was influential having received two French editions and a reprint (1763, 1765, 1766), two English translations (1778, 1786), two German editions (1774, 1775), and two Italian editions (1783, 1785). Cole 54 notes it was "a compact introductory and review textbook covering the basis of all of the principal operations of chemistry and the substances treated therein." D.S.B. 1: 527. Partington III.90.III. Ferguson I.84. Neville I. 97. Wellcome II.118. $1,000.

Photoluminescence A Presentation Copy 24. [BECCARI, JACOPO B. (16821766).] De quamplurimis phophoris nunc primum detectis commentarius. Bologna: Laelii a Vulpe, 1744. An important book by the first professor of chemistry in Italy, the Beccari treatise on photoluminescence "…contains his observations on organic and inorganic materials, which he was the first to describe and classify." (Neville I.101102). Beccari's experiments with the Bolognian phosphor were quantitative leading to a better understanding of its properties. Harvey, pp. 156158 & 324327. Weeks (6th ed.), p. 514. Partington II. 339. Poggendorff I. 123. Ronalds, p. 40. $2,400.

Important Treatise on the Chemistry of Iron and Steel 25. BERGMAN, TORBERN. Analyse du fer. Paris: Méquignon, 1783. Duveen (p. 67) notes this book as "one of the rarest of Bergman's writings." The director of the iron works at Bayard, Pierre C. Grignon (172384), has translated Johan Gadolin's (17601852) doctoral dissertation of 1781 presented under Bergman (173584) and has added an appendix and four memoirs on the metallurgy of iron and related subjects. C.S. Smith in his 'Sources for the history of the science of steel' has written: "It was this edition that was largely responsible for the interest of leading French scientists in the problem of steel." Neville Lib. I. 121: "a milestone work of metallurgical chemistry." Bolton, 1st suppl., p.86. Partington III. 193. Neu 408. $850. 26. BERGMANN, TORBERN (173584). A dissertation on elective attractions. London: J. Murray, 1785.

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Translated by Thomas Beddoes, the Swedish chemist "… published his important tables of chemical reactions and advanced a simplified version of Macquer's classification of types of reactions. Fourcroy considered this to be one of Bergman's most important contributions." (Neville Lib. I. 123). D.S.B. 2: 7. Partington III. 184. Bolton I. 302. Cole 97. $850. 27. BERZELIUS, J. JACOB (17791848). Föreläsnigar i djurkemien. Stockholm: Carl Delén, 1806, and C.F. Barquard, 1808. "Berzelius' early book on animal chemistry ('Föreläsnigar i djurkemien'), dedicated to the King of Sweden, was (at Davy's instigation) translated into English..." (Partington IV.146) by G. Brunmark as 'A view of the progress and present state of animal chemistry', 1813 and 1818 editions. A German translation followed in 1815. "Written as a textbook for his lectures, the book contains the results of his analyses of many animal substances." (Cole 146). Hagelin, 'Rare and important medical books in the library of the Karolinska Institute' (1992), pp. 142143 with facsimile of the title page. Partington IV.147.VIIa. Bolton I. 308. Edelstein 266. Not in Duveen, Ferguson, Smith or Wellcome. $1,500.

With the Rare Original Volume (1818) of the First Table of Atomic Weights 28. BERZELIUS, JÖNS JACOB (17791848). Lärbok i kemien. Stockholm: Henr. A. Nordström, 181230. An entirely complete set of Berzelius' 'Lärbok' in its original Swedish, a classic of chemistry rarely encountered with the quarto 1818 'Tabell', the first table of atomic weights, a supplement to volume three according to its title page. Though Berzelius had reported atomic weights in 1814, here he gives the first extensive table ever published giving the atomic weights of 45 of the 49 elements then known. In addition, Berzelius gives the chemical composition and molecular weights of almost 2,000 compounds. The significance of Berzelius' 'Tabell', along with the associated 1818 volume 3 'Lärbok' text on atomic theory containing the determination of atomic weights and an electrochemical theory, was quickly recognized; the following year a French translation appeared at Paris. A facsimile of a page from the 1818 'Tables' can be found on page 189 of P. Whitfield, 'Landmarks in Western science', 1999. " 'Lärbok' was a gigantic attempt to encompass the whole of chemistry in one textbook a book that eventually consisted of six volumes. Of course such a work was not suitable for teaching purposes, in spite of its title, and it was probably used for the most part as a reference work." (A. Lundgren in 'Communicating chemistry', 2000). The complete original Swedish edition rarely appears for sale. Partington IV.145.IIa. does not note 'Tabell'. Bolton I. 308 2nd editions vol. 1 & 2 only & 'Tabell'. Cole 147 1st editions, vols. 13 only; 'Tabell' is Cole 148. Neville I. 145. Edelstein 269 1st editions, vols. 13 only; 'Tabell' is Edelstein 274. Not in Duveen or Smith Coll. $3,750.

First Appearance in Print of Joseph Black's Chemical Lectures 29. BLACK, JOSEPH (178799). Lectures on the elements of chemistry… Edinburgh: Mundell, 1803.

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"A founder of modern quantitative chemistry and discoverer of latent and specific heats…" (D.S.B.). Black's popular lectures on chemistry only appeared in print posthumously edited by John Robison (17391805), who added a lengthy introduction and end notes. Probably issued later, it is obvious from the condition of this fine set that the index was never included. Bolton I. 315. Duveen, pp. 8182 (no index). Neville I. 160. Cole 158. $2,850.

With the Rare Appendix 30. [BLACK, JOSEPH (172899)]. HENRY, THOMAS (17341816). Experiments and observations… Bound with: An appendix to experiments and observations on the preparation of magnesia… London: J. Johnson, 1773. The Welsh chemist, Thomas Henry, practiced as a surgeonapothecary in Manchester. "In 1772 he published an improved process for preparing magnesia… and this is reprinted in the present work… The researches of Priestley on carbon dioxide are mentioned (p. 41) as are those of Black (pp. 4247) in detail. Henry first observed the use of carbon by plants. The book is an important eighteenthcentury landmark in the chemistry of carbon dioxide, magnesium, and calcium compounds." (Neville I. 620). Concerning the 'Appendix', Neville (I. 619) writes: "Dated Manchester, 8 March 1773, this very rare 'Appendix' was clearly written and published after the 'Experiments and Observations', which is dated Manchester, 18 January 1773." In these eight pages, Henry criticizes the magnesia preparation of Samuel Glass which he shows by chemical analysis is contaminated with caustic lime. "…(Henry) was undoubtedly one of the most important figures and deserves a niche in the industrial hall of fame." (Musson & Robinson, 'Sci. & tech. in the indust. revol.', 1964, chap.7). D.S.B. 6: 283284. 'Experiments': Cole 620; Duveen, p. 289; Partington III.691; Poggendorff I.1069. Only N.L.M. (18th C.), p. 207 has the 'Appendix'. Sotheran/Zeitlinger, 2nd suppl., nos. 11034 & 11035 without 'Appendix'. $1,200.

The Genuine Edition with Boerhaave's Autograph 31. BOERHAAVE, HERMANN (16681738). Elementa chemiae. Leiden: Isaac Severin, 1732. "Boerhaave was professor of medicine and botany from 1709, and of chemistry from 1718 at the university at Leyden. He was the most distinguished teacher of his time... One of his most important works is the treatise on chemistry, which was based on notes of his lectures, but was afterwards revised by himself." (Ferguson). "Boerhaave's 'Elementa Chemiae' at once became the standard textbook of chemistry, a position which it held until the end of the era of phlogiston. ...Chemical historians have united in paying homage to Boerhaave's treatise. Kopp... wrote that 'if ever a textbook of chemistry contributed to spreading a knowledge of the subject, raising its status, and enlarging its scope, that book was Boerhaave's'. ...The modern student of historical chemistry may thus use the 'Elementa Chemiae' as a window enabling him to take a backward look into eighteenth century chemistry, using the eyes of an informed and reflective observer of that day."

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(John Read, 'Humour and humanism in chemistry', 1947, with reproduction of the title and the autograph signature). The book is divided into two parts, the first dealing with theoretical chemistry having a Newtonian emphasis, the second with practical chemistry. Also included is an early history of chemistry. Because of the importance of Boerhaave's lectures, many manuscript copies were made and two unauthorized published editions (1724 and 1727) appeared. These convinced Boerhaave to issue the genuine edition of his chemical textbook in 1732. Partington II. 743744. Neville I. 168. Ferguson I. 112. Duveen, p.84. Bolton I. 322. Cole 164. $3,400. 32. BOERHAAVE, HERMAN (16681738). A new method of chemistry… To which is added, notes; and an appendix… By Peter Shaw, M.D., F.R.S. London: Longman, 1753. Neville I. 172173: "The last and best English edition of Boerhaave's famous textbook…" Bolton I. 322. Cole 169. $875.

Boyle on Desalination and Other Subjects 33. BOYLE, ROBERT (162791). Tracts consisting of observations about the saltness of the sea: An account of a statical hygroscope and its use: Together with an appendix about the force of the air's moisture: a fragment about the natural and preternatural state of bodies… To all which is premis'd a sceptical dialogue… London: E. Flesher for R. Davis, 1674. Fulton 113: "Boyle's omnivorous curiosity had become proverbial even during his lifetime, and none of his works illustrate his versatility of mind more strikingly than 'The saltness of the sea'. …Boyle was much interested in the problem of rendering seawater fit for consumption and much of the present tract is taken up with an account of experiments designed to make this operation feasible for sailors." The book consists of ten tracts including four on experiments with cold, one on measurement of the density of seawater, and three tracts concerning experiments with Boyle's hygrometer. Neville I. 212. Duveen, p.95. Ferguson Coll. I. 116. $2,850. 34. BUTLEROV, ALEKSANDR M. (182886). Lehrbuch der organischen chemie. Leipzig: Quandt & Händel, 1868. To the important Russian chemist, Aleksandr Butlerov, we owe our understanding "…that the particular arrangement of atoms in a molecule is responsible for the substance's physical and chemical properties." (A. Greenberg, 'A chemical history tour', 2000, p. 208). "Butlerov was mainly a theoretician and he extended Kekulé's concepts of organic structure. He proposed that each organic compound has a unique configuration and he invented the term 'chemical structure'." (Biog. Encyclo. of Scientists). Butlerov's text on organic chemistry, which replaced that of Mendeleev (1863 second edition), was published in Russian in 1864 and was first translated in 1868 into German. D.S.B. 2: 620625. Partington IV. 548550. Bolton I. 348. Not in Neville. $750.

Reprints Cannizzaro's Revolutionary Paper of 1858 Presentation Copy 35. CANNIZZARO, STANSLAO (18261910). Scritti intorno alla teoria molecolare et atomica ed all notazione chimica. Palermo: "Lo Statuto", 1896.

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The collected edition of Cannizzaro's works on atomic and molecular theory, published on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. "…his most important work was the clear exposition of the significance of Avogadro's hypothesis as the basis for the determination of atomic and molecular weights. He first clearly defined the terms and . This famous collection of important papers illustrates the development of a uniform and consistent system of chemistry. It begins in 1858 with his classic 'Sunto di un Corso de Filosofia Chimica'…" (Neville I.236). Scarce in its original state especially since the book is printed on thick paper and the wrappers are fragile. Honeyman Sale no. 577 this copy. Partington IV.491. Bolton, 1st suppl., p.117. Edelstein 455. Smith Coll., p.99. With: Alembic Club Reprint CANNIZZARO, S. Sketch of a course of chemical philosophy. Edinburgh, 1910. Authorized English translation. $1,750.

Early Important Photographs of Spectra 36. [Early Photography]. CAPRON, J. RAND (182988). Photographed spectra. One hundred and thirtysix photographs of metallic, gaseous, and other spectra printed by the permanent autotype process… With an extra plate of the solar spectrum (showing bright lines) compared with the air spectrum. London: Spon, 1877. "…Capron published an important work on 'Photographed Spectra' in which he gave, in a very easy and convenient form for reference, 136 photographs of metallic, gaseous, and other spectra, accompanied by critical explanations. For obtaining the spectra of the metals he employed a directvision prism of an inch aperture, with collimeter and camera, and with the spectroscope he obtained photographs of spectra of some forty metals… For the spectra of gases, three different spectroscopes were employed… The value of this work was fully recognized at the time, as it brought together so many spectra simultaneously before the eye…" ('Obituary', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astro. Soc., 1889). $1,500. 37. CAREY, GEORGE C. Chemistry as it is, compared with what it was: or, a systematic view of the present state of chemistry, with its application to the mechanical arts. London: William Cole, 1825. A scarce and interesting chemistry not noted by Partington; not in Poggendorff, Duveen, Bolton, Edelstein, or Ferchl. The supplement, with its own title page, collects many practical chemical notices by various authors. Cole, 'Chem. Lit. 17001860', no. 229. Smith, p.100. Neville I. 238. $750. 38. CAVALLO, TIBERIUS (17491809). A treatise on the nature and properties of air, and other permanently elastic fluids. To which is prefixed, an introduction to chymistry. London: for the Author, 1781. Cavallo's massive treatise on pneumatic chemistry, the largest English work on the subject at the time, "…deals with chemistry, hydrostatics and pneumatics, examines critically most of Priestley's experiments, and adds new work on the atmosphere and on fixed and inflammable airs. It accepts the phlogiston theory, but quotes Lavoisier's opinions. It also describes some of the extensions of the experiments by Ingenhousz on the influence of light on the growth of plants." (Partington III. 300). "…a judicious examination of contemporary work…" (D.S.B.). Bolton I. 357. Duveen, pp. 127128. Cole 236. Neville I. 249. $1,100.

Henry Cavendish and Eudiometry A Rare Presentation Offprint 39. CAVENDISH, HENRY (17311810). An account of a new eudiometer. London: J. Nichols, 1783.

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The eudiometer for measuring the volume of gases was invented in 1775 by Landriani, who introduced the term eudiometry, and it was perfected by Volta in 1777. Fontana, to whom this offprint is presented and who is referred to within, made his own nitrous air eudiometer in 1775, which Cavendish preferred, and which "…won wide acceptance in northern Europe." (D.S.B. 14: 74). For several decades eudiometers were employed to help identify malarial and other insalubrious regions …hoping to correlate the reading of their eudiometers with the evident foulness of the air. No * consistent correlations emerged. In 1805 Humboldt and GayLussac put an end to the search by showing that the percentage of oxygen in unvitiated air was independent of source (). "In 'An account of a New Eudiometer' Cavendish examined the great discrepancies in the results of various investigations on the 'goodness' of air as determined by Priestley's method of measuring the contraction ensuing when air is mixed over water with nitrous gas (nitrous oxide). He refers to the Abbé Fontana eudiometer and showed that the differences resulted from variations in the method of mixing gases and the time the gases are allowed to stand before shaking with the water and nitrous air from copper and nitric acid…" (Partington III. 321323). George Wilson in his 'The life of the Hon'ble Henry Cavendish' for the Cavendish Society in 1851 (pp. 215231) treats this important paper in detail. A Cavendish eudiometer is preserved at St. Patrick's College, Ireland. Cavendish published 18 pages in the Phil. Trans. of which 10 are chemical. Presentation copies from the reclusive Cavendish are very uncommon. See: PMM 217 for a notice of eudiometry, Fontana, and Cavendish. $3,000.

Fine Set In Original State 40. CHAPTAL, JEAN ANTOINE (17561832). Chimie appliqué a l'agriculture. Paris: Huzard, 1823. "Chaptal is noted as a chemical manufacturer and for his part in building French industry after the revolution when he was Minister of the Interior, 18011804. …This is a book that had some impact on agricultural chemistry. It includes many practical procedures such as preserving foods, making cider, beer and wine, making butter and cheese, etc. as well as the chemistry of soils, fertilizers etc." (Cole 250). The English translation was popular in America with numerous editions from 1835 to 1854. Bolton I. 361. Partington III. 558. Neville I. 259. $975.

First Chemical Periodical Published in English 41. CHEMIST, THE. Volumes I & II (all published). London: Knight and Lacey, 182425. "The only volumes of the first periodical publication in English on chemistry." (Duveen, p. 131). Shortlived as it was deemed "not likely to pay", nevertheless, it provides a useful snapshot of the stateoftheart of chemical science circa 1825 with numerous valuable illustrations of chemical apparatus of the day. The preface to volume one, besides providing some details on the objectives of the weekly publications, contains an overflowing appreciation of Sir Humphry Davy as the leading living chemist. Bolton questions the suggestion that the journal was edited by Mongredieu, while more recently, W.H. Brock in his 'Norton history of chemistry' (1993) gives Thomas Hodgkin as the editor. Sotheran/Zeitlinger, 3rd suppl., no. 2528 points out that the second volume (probably published in a smaller number) is "specially rare" and is nearly always missing its title page and notice leaf. Dr. E. Weil, Cat. 27, no. 226. Bolton I. 1096.127. Smith Coll., p.109. Edelstein 2700. Neville I. 270. $1,650.

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42. CHEVREUL, MICHEL EUGÉNE (17861889). Considerations générales sur l'analyse organique et sur ses applications. Paris: Levrault, 1824. "The second book by Chevreul on organic chemistry, dedicated to J.L. GayLussac and L.J. Thenard, and a landmark in the history of organic analysis." (Neville I. 272). D.S.B. 3: 240244. Bolton I. 365. Cole 274. $750. 43. CHEVREUL, MICHEL EUGÉNE (17861889). Lecons de chimie appliqué a la teinture. Paris: Pichon & Didier, 182930. As director of dyeing at Gobelins, Chevreul taught a course of chemistry there from 1826 to 1840. The 30 lessons appeared in print in 1829 to 1830 and covered nearly all of chemistry with the last two lessons wholly on dyeing. Chevreul's "…initial studies were on chemical aspects of dyes and dyeing, attempting to place the art of dyeing on a more rational basis than the complicated and empirical procedures then employed…" (D.S.B). Neville I. 272. Bolton III. 241. Edelstein 2981. Partington IV. 247. Biblio. Tinctoria 206. $975.

First Issue in Original State of John Dalton's First Book 44. DALTON, JOHN (17661844). Meteorological observations and essays. London: W. Richardson, J. Phillips, and W. Pennington, 1793. The scarce first issue of the first edition (2nd issue, also 1793 but undated; 2nd ed. Manchester, 1834) of Dalton's first book. "They contained, as the author remarked 40 years later, the germs of most of the ideas afterwards expanded by him into discoveries. A prominent section comprised the result of six years' auroral observations. He had detected independently the magnetic relations of the phenomenon, and concluded thence auroral light to be of purely electric origin, and auroral arches and streamers to be composed of an elastic fluid of a ferruginous nature existing above our atmosphere. This hypothesis was further developed by Biot in 1820... The essay in the same volume was remarkable for the then novel assertion that aqueous vapour exists in the air as an independent elastic fluid, not chemically combined, but mechanically mixed with the other atmospheric gases." (A.M. Clerke quoted in Sotheran/Zeitlinger, vol.1, no.930). "...(It) includes his ideas on evaporation, which contained the seeds of his later chemical atomic theory. In the appendix... (he) provided the first statement of what is now known as Dalton's Law of partial pressures..." (H.F. Norman Lib. Cat. 574). Smyth 1. Mottelay, pp.307308. Wheeler Gift Cat. 582. Gartrell 128. Neville I. 321. Duveen, p. 644. H.F. Norman Lib. Cat. 574. $2,500.

A Presentation Copy of John Dalton's Very Rare Second Book 45. DALTON, JOHN (17661844). Philosophical essays. Manchester: R. and W. Dean, 1802.

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John Dalton, the author of the epochal chemical atomic theory, brought together in this his rare second scientific book a number of essays read before the Manchester Library and Philosophical Society from 1799 to 1802 and published in their 'Memoirs'. The memoirs read on three separate dates in October 1801, collectively 'Experimental essays on the constitution of mixed gases…' (Smyth 29 periodical appearances in 1802), gave Dalton "…at once a European reputation". They constitute "Dalton's first atomic theory (which) was a ". Also these memoirs explain the diagrams in Dalton's accompanying plate of simple and compound atmospheres. The importance of Dalton' early ideas is seen in his experimental efforts to contest objections to them which over some years eventually brought him to his atomic chemical theory. The chemist and Dalton's early biographer, Henry E. Roscoe (18331915), provides details in chapter four of 'John Dalton and the rise of modern chemistry' (1895) as does H. Lonsdale in 'The worthies of Cumberland: John Dalton' (1874), chapter eight. The essays in this volume were also discussed in detail by William Charles Henry in his 'Memoirs of the life and scientific researches of John Dalton' (1854), chapter two. The present 1802 volume is Smyth 6. Not in Neville or any of the usual chemical bibliographies and collections. $12,500.

Davy's First Bakerian Lecture A Presentation Copy of the Offprint

46. DAVY, HUMPHRY (17781829). The Bakerian lecture, on some chemical agencies of electricity. London: W. Bulmer, 1807. In this famous lecture delivered to the Royal Society on November 20, 1806, Davy reasoned and experimented with great clarity on the decomposition of water by electrolysis. Further Davy proposed an electrical theory of chemical affinity. In the next year, Davy elaborated these experiments into the discovery of sodium and potassium, and thereafter barium, calcium and boron. D.S.B. 3:601. Fullmer 1806:3 (offprint issue not noted) "For the paper Davy was awarded Napoleon's prize of 3000 francs in the gift of the French Institute." Milestones of Science 52. Partington IV 4045. PMM noted. $3,000. 47. DAVY, HUMPHRY (17781829). Elements of chemical philosophy. Part I. Vol. I (all published). London: J. Johnson, 1812. In 1812 Davy published the first connected treatise on physical chemistry which "…incorporate(d) the results of the important discoveries made by the author. These include(d) a description of fluorspar, the origin of fluoric compounds, the naming of hydrofluoric acid, and a modification of Lavoisier's classification of the elements." (Sotheran/Zeitlinger, 2nd suppl., no. 10591). Davy also included an account of his contributions to the new science of electrochemistry which he had helped found. Fullmer 1812: 6. Neville I. 336. Bolton I. 390. Partington IV. 35. $1,850. 47a. DAVY, HUMPHRY (17781829). Elements of chemical philosophy. Part I. Volume I. (all published). Philadelphia: Bradford and Inskeep, 1812. Published the same year as the London original, this is the only American edition of Sir Humphry Davy’s classic text, the earliest connected treatise on physical chemistry. Bolton I. 390. Cole 345. Smith Coll., p.140. Fullmer 1812: 6R. Not in Neville. Scarce, especially in the original state. $975.

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48. DAVY, HUMPHRY (17781829). Elements of agricultural chemistry. London: Longman…, 1813. "An important book that introduced the era of scientific farming and the use of 'chemically balanced' fertilizers. …Davy, the first to use the term is concerned with only a limited number of elements. …Davy here recognizes the importance of soil analysis and the measurement of its physical properties". (Neville I.333). Fullmer 70. Partington IV.35. Bolton I.390. $750.

The Herculaneum Papyri and Sir Humphry Davy Davy's Original Manuscript Report and the Report's Extensive Cover Letter

With a Curator's List of Papyri Manuscripts and a Detailed Cover Letter 49. DAVY, HUMPHRY (17781829). On an August day A.D. 79 Mt. Vesuvius violently erupted burning Herculaneum in alternating pyroclastic flows and surges. In a quickly consumed oxygen atmosphere a covering of pumice, ash and rocks over the Villa dei Papiri and its library charred and dried the papyrus book rolls within. Not until the early 18th century was the first excavation begun after accidental discovery by welldiggers of the buried Roman town of Herculaneum next to the modern Ercolano (formerly Resina). The Villa dei Papiri was discovered in 1750 and the first of nearly 2000 scrolls in 1752. From this point to today numerous attempts to read the book rolls by opening the charred papyrus scrolls, or otherwise employing modern technological imaging methods, have been tried with some successes. Through the eighteenth century an unrolling machine which operated very slowly was built by Father Antonio Piaggio revealed the minor works of a member of the Athens school of Epicurean thought, the Greek poet and philosopher, Philodemus. Overall there has been great excitement over the scrolls and a hope that lost masterpieces by classical writers would be recovered. The first Herculaneum text was published in 1793. In the early nineteenth century the French and English became involved in working with the valued scrolls, in the British case under Rev. John Hayter and with the instigation and at the expense of the Prince of Wales (later King George IV), and in the French case as a consequence of the French invasion by Napoleon. Between 1802 and 1806, Hayter oversaw the unrolling of about 200 scrolls. In Paris and in London further attempts on working with scrolls removed to both cities engaged prominent scientists including in England Thomas Young, Sir Joseph Banks, and Humphry Davy. They tried various gases and liquids, and in the case of Banks, a new unrolling machine. A second group of 16 scrolls arrived in England in 1816 and Davy was invited to work with them. His first attempts were mechanical. Thereafter sent by the British government and patronized by the Prince Regent, Davy with Lady Davy travelled to Italy in 1819 to conduct experiments on the manuscript scrolls. "He arrived at Naples in the autumn, and began his researches on the Herculaneum manuscripts… His first results were sufficiently encouraging to induce him to make some prolonged experiments with a view of discovering a method of unfolding them. He found that the papyri had suffered not so much from fire, as was believed, as from a gradual change in vegetable structure, similar to that which accompanies the transformation of vegetable matter into lignite. He managed to unroll a number, and an account of his results was communicated to the Royal Society in 1821. But from the fragmentary character of the papyri these were found to be of little value to literature. Subsequently, difficulties were put in his way by the curators of the museum, and ultimately his investigations were abandoned, not without some little exhibition of temper and resentment on his part. …He left Naples in the spring of 1819…" (T.E. Thorpe, 'Humphry Davy: Poet & Philosopher', 1896/2007). John Ayrton Paris writes on this subject in his 'The life of Sir Humphry Davy' (1831): "It occurred to him, that as chlorine (Davy had demonstrated its elemental nature) and iodine do not exert any action upon pure carbonaceous substances, while they possess a strong attraction for hydrogen, these bodies might probably be applied with success for the purpose of destroying the adhesive matter, without the possibility of injuring the letters of the Papyri…" At this point Paris recounts much of the details found in Davy's 1821 Philosophical Transactions paper and in the

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original official report offered below. Davy's brother, John, in his memoir on 'The life of Sir Humphry Davy' (1836) gives a similar account (vol.2, pp. 101, 118119) with a comment on the value of these experiments to chemical understanding. Recent studies of Davy and of the scrolls give similar accounts (eg. D. Knight, 'Humphry Davy Science & Power', 1992, pp. 118119, 133; J.Z. Fullmer, 'Sir Humphry Davy's Published Works', 1969, pp. 8586, 88; H. Hartley, 'Humphry Davy', 1966, pp. 121122; D. Sider, 'The Library of the Villa dei Papiri at Herculaneum', 2005, pp. 4657, esp. pp. 5657). After Davy's efforts, a chemical approach was not tried again for decades, however unrolling continued with Piaggio's machine. (1). A.L.S. written from Rome, 12 February, 1819, from Humphry Davy to William Richard Hamilton (17771859), Undersecretary of State (180422) at the Foreign Office, London and an archaeologist. This is the extensive cover letter to Davy's official report on the state of the Herculaneum manuscripts. Davy gives particulars on his stay in Naples and at the museum along with details of his experiments with the papyri. He gives his estimate of the time and personnel it will take to work with the scrolls and fragments. This includes specific details on various salaries and costs for a total likely expenditure of something under 3000 pounds. For example, this includes 400 pounds for the "Greek Scholar" plus 200 for travelling expenses. Davy writes he will return to Naples in March when he hopes to meet the King and Sir William A' Court who he just missed on arrival. Davy comments on the MSS contents Epicurus and Lucretius as likely distasteful to the Orthodox Roman Catholic beliefs. Before concluding his "very tedious letter", Davy considers the possible arrangements for a further visit to Naples and gives Hamilton some archeological news from Rome. (2). [Manuscript]. Report on the state of the Manuscript of Payrus found at Herculaneum. This is Davy's official report to the British government referred to in (1). Another copy was sent to the president of the Royal Society, Sir Joseph Banks, who passed it on to Dr. Marcet. Prof. William T. Brande received it from Marcet and quickly had it published in the Quarterly Journal of Science (vol.7, pp. 154161, 1819; see Fullmer 1819:1). This displeased Davy since he considered it a private communication. Very slight differences can be found between this manuscript and the published version. In 1821 (Fullmer 1821:5) an authorized paper by Davy on Herculaneum papyri appeared in the Philosophical Transactions. (3). A.L. from the Keeper of the Royal Museum, Portici, Piixo Paderni, to an unnamed recipient, 6 Jan. 1806. The letter refers to the accompanying document:Notamento di tutti li Papiri Ercolanesi svolti sotto la Direzio ne del Sig. le De Giovanni Hayter da Genne: 1802 a tutto li 6 di Gene. 1806 Paderni at the outset hopes a letter of some months ago entrusted to Colonel Layard was received (likely by William R. Hamilton of the British Foreign Office). He gives considerable detail on the recently discovered incomplete Latin epic poem (MS no. 817 in the document's list). Paderni believes it may be attributed to Varius offering his evidence and supportive analysis. Paderni concludes by noting MS no. 1061, the last on the included list, a mathematics fragment by Demetrius on the 'Bisection of Rectilinear Angles.' He emphasizes as a bit of selfpromotion the types of manuscripts yet to be unrolled and read, both in Greek and Latin, in various named subject areas. The list itself contains content titles, where known, of 187 manuscripts. Further references: J. Seabrook, 'The invisible library', New Yorker Magazine, Nov. 16, 2015. R. Banerji, 'Unlocking the scrolls of Herculaneum', BBC Magazine, 20 Dec. 2013. $20,000.

A Presentation Copy

50. DAVY, HUMPHRY (17781829). On a new phenomenon of electromagnetism. London: W. Nicol, 1823.

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Faraday influenced by Wollaston's unsuccessful experiment, as demonstrated to Davy in 1821, on the rotation on its axis of a wire carrying a current when approached by a magnet, succeeded in 1823 at showing the rotation of a wire carrying a current round the pole of a magnet in a cup of mercury in which the wire dipped. Faraday's results prompted Davy to investigate the movement of mercury when a strong current was passed through it and the effect of the presence of a magnet. Davy credits Wollaston's experiment as being prior to Faraday's work, a matter over which Wollaston's friend, Henry Warburton, F.R.S. (see item 51) first opposed Faradays election to the Royal Society. Wheeler Gift 2566. Fullmer 1823: 1. $1,250.

Presentation Copy to Henry Warburton, Esq.

51. DAVY, HUMPHRY (17781829). On the application of liquids formed by the condensation of gases as mechanical agents. London: W. Nicol, 1823. In the course of experiments with Faraday on liquefaction of gases, Davy pursued substances which might be used more efficiently in an engine than steam. Here he describes the liquefaction of prussic acid (hydrocyanic acid) and sulphureous acid by their own pressure. Fullmer 1823: 3. $1,500.

Presentation Copy

52. DAVY, HUMPHRY (17781829). Six discoveries delivered before the Royal Society London: John Murray, 1827. "Davy's 'Discourses' from 18206, during his term as president of the Royal Society. A valuable work, it includes the awarding of the Royal and Copley medals to many of the fellows for their important contributions: e.g. J.F.W. Herschel, Edward Sabine, John Pond, Peter Barlow, Arago, and John Dalton." (Neville I.342). Fullmer 1827: 1, (850 copies printed). Bolton I. 391. Cole 350. Bound with: THOMSON, THOMAS (17731852). History of the Royal Society, from its institution to the end of the eighteenth century. London: R. Baldwin, 1812. "Thomson was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1811 and in 1812 published this excellent history of the society, which is extensively documented with references to original sources…" (Neville I.549). Bolton I. 161. Cole 1276. Bound with: List of the Royal Society for the year 1819. London: W. Bulmer, (1819). $1,600.

American Revision of Heinrich Rose's Chemical Tables 53. DEXTER, WILLIAM P. (182090). Tabulae atomicae. The chemical tables for the calculation of quantitative analysis of H. Rose. Recalculated for the more recent determinations of atomic weights, and with other alterations and additions. Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1850.

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Though William P. Dexter attained an M.D. at Harvard (1842), his main interest was chemistry, in particular in the work of the German chemist, Heinrich Rose (17951864), the discoverer of niobium. Independently wealthy, he conducted research in his home laboratory. His chemical education was enhanced by studies in Germany with Rose, Wöhler, and Bunsen. Dexter's English version and revision of Rose's 'Tables' is based on the original tables as published in the appendix to Rose's classic 'Handbuch der analytischen chemie', (Berlin, 1829 and many editions and translations). On Dexter: Miles & Gould, 'American chemists and chemical engineers' (1994), pp. 6263. Bolton I. 399. Not in Neville, Cole, Smith or Edelstein. $750. 54. [DOSSIE, ROBERT] (171777). The elaborately laid open, or, the secrets of modern chemistry and pharmacy revealed. London: J. Nourse, 1758. Dossie was a London apothecary who helped found the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (1754). Kopp indicates that the process for manufacturing sulphuric acid from sulphur on a commercial scale was here first described. Partington II. 761762: "his best known work". Cole 379. Neville I. 379. Duveen, p. 179. Bolton I. 405. N.L.M. (18th C.), p. 125. $975.

A Presentation Copy of the First American Book on Dyeing 55. ELLIS, ASA. The country dyer's assistant. Brookfield, Massachusetts: printed by E. Merriam & Co. for the Author, n.d. (1798). Asa Ellis' book on dyeing is the first such manual on the subject written and published in America. "In this book he reveals the new revolutionary spirit in America which was showing up not only in politics but also in science and technology… his information on dyestuffs is extremely detailed… finally , with a strong feeling for the principle of 'Made in America' Ellis devoted his last chapter to the subject of America producing its own dyestuffs." (S.M. Edetstein, 'Yankee dyers', American Dyestuff Reporter, Dec. 5, 1955). This important book is particularly rare in presentation. It is clear from a 1912 note on the front pastedown that this book had been passed down in the Abbott family. The possible recipient is a Mary Abbott, born in Brookfield in 1782. Rink 1837. Edestein 3018. Not in Neville, Bolton, Cole or Smith. $3,250.

An American Chemist's Copy of a Classic of French Chemistry 56. GAYLUSSAC, JOSEPH LOUIS (17781850) AND L.J. THENARD (17771857). Recherches physicochimique et les proprietés du la preparation chimique et les proprietés du potassium et du sodium. Paris: Deterville, 1811. The great French chemist, GayLussac began in 1808 his fruitful collaboration with his friend, Thenard. They developed a method of making sodium and potassium in quantity introducing their use as reagents. Previous to the chemical method, they used the large voltaic battery (illustrated in the plates) which Napoleon had given to the École Polytechnique, but were only able to obtain small quantities of the reactive metals. These researches, previously reported in papers, along with

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their discovery of boron, their investigation of oxymuriatic acid (chlorine), their work on photochemistry, and their improvement of analytical methods, are incorporated in these volumes. D.S.B. 5: 317327. Partington IV. 7790, & 234. Neville I. 505506. Duveen, p. 237. Cole 510. Weeks, 5th ed., pp. 576580. $1,500.

“…masterly summary of contemporary organic chemistry…” 57. GERHARDT, CHARLES (181656). Traité de chimie organique. Paris: Didot, 185356. Charles Gerhardt studied with Liebig in Germany and with Dumas in France, where he met Laurent. Together they developed an important theory of types as a classification scheme in organic chemistry. The theory of types, combined with Gerhardt’s idea of hom*ologous series, gave a general system of classification with some predictive power. The ‘Traite’, Gerhardt’s largest work and partly posthumous, “...is a systematic and detailed text based on the unitary system.” (Cole 519). W.H. Brock, ‘Hist. chem.’ (1993), p. 230 headline quotation. D.S.B. 3: 369375. Partington IV. 408. III. Neville I. 517: "Gerhardt's Magnum Opus…" Bolton I. 475. Edelstein 975. Smith Coll., p.191 (mostly reprint vols.). $1,100.

Foundation of Chemical Thermodynamics The Phase Rule

58. GIBBS, J. WILLARD (18391903). Graphical methods in thermodynamics of fluids. Bound with: A method of geometrical representation of the thermodynamic properties of substances by means of surfaces. Bound with: On the equilibrium of heterogeneous substances. (New Haven: published by the Academy, 1873, 1873, 187478). "Willard Gibbs is, in my opinion, one of the most original and important creative minds in the field of science America has produced." (A. Einstein). The Connecticut Academy consisting of only 100 members at the time with membership dues of only $5.00/yr., neither had the funds to

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publish an extensive and mathematically complicated paper as Gibbs' 'Heterogeneous substances', nor did anyone on the publication committee profess to understand it. The paper was published with funds raised for the cause; A.E. Verrill, the Academy's president, said at the time: "…we know Gibbs and took his contributions on faith." Many thought then only one man could understand the work: Maxwell. Gibbs succeeded "…in laying the basis of physical chemistry. In a style difficult for his colleagues to follow, he outlined the conditions determining the equilibrium attained by increasing entropy in a thermodynamic system. Gibbs evolved the 'phase rule' or law determining the number of physical phases or states possible to a specific chemical system in equilibrium." (Heralds of Science 49). Grolier/Science 100, no. 40. Milestones of Science, no. 84. Evans, Epochal Achievements, no. 60. Biblio. mechanica, p. 138. $7,500. 58a. GIBBS, J. WILLARD (18391903). Thermodynamische studien. Lepzig: W. Engelmann, 1892. Offered with: Équilibre des systémes chimiques. Paris: G. Carré and C. Naud, 1899. Gibbs' important pioneering work in thermodynamics is translated into German by Wilhelm Ostwald (18531934; Nobel prize, 1908) and into French by Henry Le Chatelier (1851936), famous for the principle concerning chemical equilibrium named after him. $950. 58b. GIBBS, J. WILLARD (18391903). The scientific papers. London: Longmans…, 1906. This is the valuable wellproduced first appearance of Gibbs' papers which were reprinted in 1928 with the fine portrait here changed to a halftone. $750.

"The first comprehensive English work on the blowpipe…"

59. GRIFFIN, JOHN JOSEPH (180277). A practical treatise on the use of the blowpipe, in chemical and mineral analysis. Glasgow: R. Griffin, 1827. "The first comprehensive English work on the blowpipe: the earlier books of Clarke (London, 1819) and Berzelius (London, 1822) having dealt only with the gas blowpipe and mouth blowpipe, respectively. Griffin gives a history of the use of blowpipes (pp. 111)…" (Neville I. 551 with facsimile of frontis and engraved title). J. J. Griffin was first a bookseller and publisher in Glasgow, then he founded a longlived firm offering chemical apparatus in London. He wrote a number of chemical books right up to the year of his death. Bolton II. 190. Cole 558. Partington IV. 277. $1,000.

The Discovery That Put American Chemistry on the Map Robert Hare's Oxyhydrogen Blowpipe with a Related Small Collection

60. (1). HARE, ROBERT (17811858). Memoir on the supply and application of the blowpipe. Phila.: for the Chemical Society, 1802.

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(2). SILLIMAN, BENJAMIN (17791864). Experiments on the fusion of various refractory bodies, by the compound blowpipe of Mr. Hare. In: Memoirs of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. Volume I, Part III. New Haven: for the Academy, 1813. (3). CLARKE, EDWARD D. (17691822). A.L.S. to Lord Compton, Aug. 1, 1819 from Cambridge. Includes discussion of Clarke's gas blowpipe. (4). HARE, ROBERT. A compendium of the course of chemical instruction. Phila.: J.G. Auner, 1827. (5). [HARE, ROBERT]. Four A.L.S. concerning Hare's Rumford Medal from the A.A.A.S. in 1839, the first awarded. Letters from Robert M. Patterson (17871854) of the Mint of the United States to Daniel Treadwell (17911872), Rumford Professor, Harvard (183445): (a). Phila. Dec. 5, 1838, 4 to, 1 1/3 pages, (b). Phila., Dec 27, 1838, 4 to, 1 1/4 pages, (c). Phila., Jan. 30, 1839, 1 page, (d). Phila., April 12, 1839, 1 page. (6). HARE, ROBERT (17811858). On certain improvements in the construction and supply of the hydrooxygen blowpipe, by which rhodium, iridium, or osmiuret of iridium, also platinum in the large way, have been fused. New Haven: printed by B. L. Hamlem, 1847. This small collection documents the first important original American contribution to chemistry that received recognition by European and English chemists. Robert Hare, the distinguished professor of chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania Medical School (181847), made his most significant contribution to science with the invention of the oxyhydrogen blowpipe. It gave a higher temperature than was possible by any other means allowing the melting of platinum and other high melting point metals. The collection starts with the very rare publication in its original state of Hare's oxyhydrogen blowpipe pamphlet (1). Adding to its rarity, it carries a presentation inscription from Hare. Hare's advance is noted in many sources including James Kendall's 'Great discoveries by young chemists' (1953), pp. 200203 with a portrait and a reset illustration of the 1802 title page: "a real landmark in scientific discovery." Hare was only 20 when he reported his invention to the Chemical Society in Philadelphia. In (2) Benjamin Silliman, Sr., the famous professor of chemistry and pharmacy at Yale who early in his career worked in Hare's chemical laboratory, supports Hare's work with the oxyhydrogen blowpipe with a publication of his own experiments with the apparatus. The English chemist and mineralogist, Edward D. Clarke published in 1819 his text entitled 'The Gas Blowpipe' in which he presented his very similar apparatus as original without acknowledging Hare's earlier invention. This elicited a dispute which continued even after Clarke's death (1822). In (3) Clarke writes Lord Compton inviting him to visit and to see his collections of coins and minerals, but more so his "…gas blowpipe, by the aid of which, the character of infusibility is for ever banished from the Sciences of Chemistry and Mineralogy. I have melted Platinum in such a manner, that it 'poured out like water on every side'." Clarke further discusses at some length a blue crystal obtained from Vesuvius mentioned by Lord Compton but new to Clarke. Hare, who of course taught chemistry at Penn, published in 1827 (4) the first issue of his 'Compendium' (Cole, 590) which thereafter saw a number of enlarged editions and was often bound with current Hare tracts on particular chemical subjects. On pages 77 to 78, Hare described and illustrated his blowpipe and its use, and noted that in the Appendix (pp. 1932 with plate) is a description of the controversy with Clarke along with Hare's defense (first pub. in 1820, see Cole 597). For his great discovery, Hare was awarded in 1839 the very first Rumford Medal of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Four letters and an original drawing (5) written by Robert M. Patterson, as Director of the Mint of the United States (183551) , to Rumford Professor Daniel Treadwell at Harvard documents the particulars of the design and striking of the medal. In the Dec.

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5th letter, Patterson informs Treadwell that Moritz Furst would execute the design and their ChiefCoiner, Adam Eckfeldt, would sink the dies and strike the medal. Patterson breaks down the cost in gold and silver, and suggests a total charge would not exceed $1,000. In the next letter, Patterson mentions the two portraits of Rumford in the Philadelphia Museum that Furst can access for the medal's obverse and comments on Treadwell's suggestion for the lettering on the reverse. He suggests an alternative and encloses a precise ink drawing illustrating his design for the reverse of the 65 mm diameter medal. It reads: "American Academy of Arts and Sciences / Rumford Medal/ for discoveries in / Light and Heat / Awarded to / Robert Hare, M.D. / for his / Compound Blowpipe / 1839". The letter of Jan. 30 confirms receipt of $100 for the advance to Furst and the "legend" for the reverse. By April 12 Patterson has received another $300 and remarks that the reverse die is finished and will be hardened in a few days. The medal was struck in pure gold. An extant 1873 medal weighs 458.9 grams. Finally, in (6) is Hare's further development of his blowpipe with new experiments and a reiterated defense of his priority. A few references: M.D. Saltzman, 'The HareClarke controversy…', Bull. Hist. Chem., vol. 26, no. 2, 2001; E.F. Smith, 'The life of Robert Hare', 1917; B. Silliman, Jr., 'Amer. contributions to chem..', Phila., 1874. $7,800.

Three Offprints of William Henry Papers Including the Classic: Henry's Law of Gases 61. HENRY, WILLIAM (17741836). Experiments on carbonated hydrogenous gas; with a view to determine whether carbon be a simple or compound substance. Bound with: Experiments on the quantity of gases absorbed by water, at different temperatures, and under different pressures. Bound with: Additional experiments on muriatic and oxymuriatic acids. London: printed by W. Bulmer and Co., (1797), 1803, 1812. The English chemist, William Henry "…discovers (1803) that when a gas is absorbed in a liquid the weight of the gas dissolved is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas over the liquid. Formally stated in 1808, this is later termed Henry's Law. It contributes directly to the atomic theory of John Dalton who extends the law to mixtures of gases, in conjunction with his own Law of Partial Pressures." (C.L. Parkinson, 'Breakthroughs', 1985, p. 243). The 1797 offprint is Henry's first paper which presents "…a refutation of William Austin's claim to have shown that carbon was not an element (1789)." (D.S.B.). The last offprint concerns Henry's new experiments undertaken "…after the classic researches of GayLussac and Thénard in France and of Davy in England had provided the evidence for the elementary nature of oxymuriatic and its combination with hydrogen in muriatic acid…" (D.S.B.). Henry's work appeared to favor the new views. Neville I. 621 1812 offprint. C.A. Pickover, 'Archimedes to Hawking laws of science and the great minds behind them', 2008, pp. 184187. $2,850.

A Presentation Copy 62. HUTTON, JAMES (172697). Dissertations on different subjects in natural philosophy. Edinburgh: A. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1792.

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Though best known for his epochal work in geology, 'The theory of the earth' (1785/88/95), Hutton contributed to a number of topics in the physical sciences. That work is gathered in this large volume dedicated to his best friend, the man who delivered before the Royal Society of Edinburgh on Hutton's behalf, Hutton's first lecture (1785) on his theory of geological time, the distinguished Joseph Black. The book "…is of considerable interest to the historian of science. The conclusions he reached in this work were often original and sometimes supported by experiments he had carried out himself. The principal subjects discussed are meteorology, phlogiston, and the theory of matter." (D.S.B.). Found within are Hutton's theories of rain and the origin of wind, his views on Lavoisier's chemical ideas, and in the last part, of this three part work, his theory of matter which is aligned with that of Boscovich but independently developed. Included in this third part are Hutton's ideas on heat, light, electricity, and phlogiston. Partington III.628. Cole 667. Smith Co.., p. 246. Neville I.670. $6,750.

The Two Editions of Jacobs' Early American Chemical Textbook 63. JACOBS, WILLIAM S. (17721843). The student's chemical pocket companion. Phila.: printed for the Author, 1802. Offered with: The student's chemical pocket companion. Phila.: M. Carey, and Kimber, Conrad & Co., 1807. The BelgianAmerican, W.S. Jacobs, arrived in Philadelphia in late 1794. Capitalizing on his medical training in Europe, Jacobs was engaged as dissector at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School where he eventually obtained an M.D. in 1801. His 'Chemical pocket companion' first appeared in 1802, derived from Jacobs' note taking of European period chemical texts that his fellow students encouraged him to publish. It is among the very few original American books published on the subject in the early period. Neither edition in Neville. 1802: Smith Coll., p. 251; Cole 680 (lacks two leaves); not in Bolton or Edelstein. 1807: Bolton I. 551; Smith Coll., p. 251; not in Cole or Edelstein. $775.

A Presentation Copy in Its Original Presentation Binding 64. JACQUIN, NIKOLAUS JOSEF (17271817). Anfangsgründe der medicinischpractischen chymie; sum gebrauche seiner vorlesungen. Vienna: C.F. Wappler, 1783. "...the first chemistry professor in Hungary, Nicholas Joseph Jacquin, a Dutchborn surgeon in the court of Empress Maria Theresa, published an important book concerning his theories in Latin, while his textbook, which appeared in 1783, was written in German." (A. Lundgren & B. BensaudeVincent, eds., 'Communicating chemistry textbooks and their audiences, 17891939', 2000, p. 373 & 375). "A further contribution by Jacquin to chemistry is a chemistry textbook which he designed specifically for the instruction of pharmacists and physicians; enlarged and modified by his son and successor at Vienna, Josef Franz, Baron von Jacquin, the work became a widely known textbook of general chemistry. It appeared in several editions and determined the direction of chemical instruction in Austria for two generations; it was also translated into English and Dutch." (D.S.B.). Edelstein 1245. Both Bolton and Ferguson have only the 2nd edition of 1785. N.L.M. (18th C.), p. 232. Poggendorff I. 1185. Neville Lib. I. 685. $1,100. 65. KAYSER, J. (18531940) AND C. RUNGE (18561927). Ueber die spectren der elemente. Berlin: G. Reimer for Königl. Akad. der Wissenschaften, 18881893.

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Heinrich Kayser, in association with Carl Runge, at the Hannover Technical University, set out to investigate the spectroscopy of a number of elements to establish a relationship between spectral structure and periodic classification along the lines of Balmer's earlier work on hydrogen. "From the vantage of today, the work of Rydberg and of Kayser and Runge was indispensible to the atomic theory brought forth twentyfive years later by Rutherford and Bohr." (D.S.B.). W. McGucken, 'NineteenthCentury Spectroscopy', 1969, pp. 138156. $875.

Very Rare French Alchemy 66. LA CHASTRE, RENE DE. Le prototype ou tres parfait et analogique exemplaire de l'art chimicq; a la phisique ou philosphie de la science naturelle. Paris: J.A. Joallin, 1620. This early French alchemy is dedicated to the Queen Mother (Marie de Médicis). Duveen, p. 331 calls this early chemistry with much on metals, especially silver and gold, "A rare book." Emil Offenbacher similarly notes in his 1966 antiquarian book catalogue: "One of the rarest alchemical treatises, according to Dorbon (Biblio. Esoterica 6082)." In this copy, the index is bound before the text. The book is not noted by Partington, Poggendorff, or Thorndike. Ferchl, p. 92 includes it and notes a 1635 edition as well. Bolton, 1st suppl., p. 256. Smith Coll., p. 276. Edelstein 1337. N.L.M. (17th C.), no. 6537. Wellcome I. 192. Neville Lib. II. 1. Caillet 5899. Not in Ferguson, Sotheran/Zeitlinger, or Weil Cats. $1,750.

First Issue of "The first salvo in Lavoisier’s campaign…" 67. LAVOISIER, ANTOINE LAURENT (174394), LOUIS BERNARD GUYTON DE MORVEAU, CLAUDE BERTHOLLET, ANTOINE DE FOURCROY. Methode de nomenclature chimique, proposée par MM. de Morveau, Lavoisier, Bertholet (sic), de Fourcroy. Paris: Cuchet, 1787. “The first salvo in Lavoisier’s campaign to convert the scientific world to his antiphlogistic ‘new chemistry’ was this collaborative work by Lavoisier, Claude Berthollet, Antoine de Fourcroy, and Guyton de Morveau. The new chemical nomenclature, originally developed by de Morveau before he had converted to antiphlogisticism, was adopted by Lavoisier as a means for communicating his new chemistry; its publication in the present work marked a complete break with the past. ...With only slight modifications, Lavoisier and de Morveau’s system remains the basis of modern chemical nomenclature.” (H.F. Norman Lib. Cat. 1291). Duveen & Klickstein 126. Duveen, p. 340. D.S.B. 8: 80. Cole 566. Bolton I. 58. Partington III. 372.VI. Smith Coll., p.209. Edelstein 1361. Milestones of Science 126. First issue not in Neville. See: PMM 238. $2,750.

Marking a New Epoch in Chemistry 68. LAVOISIER, ANTOINE LAURENT (174394). Traite elementaire de chimie, presente dans un ordre nouveau et d'apres les decouvertes modernes. Paris: Cuchet, 1789. "Lavoisier's chemical textbook includes the unified exposition of his four most significant contributions to chemistry. These are first, the use of accurate measurements for chemical researches, such as the balance for weight distribution at every chemical change; second, researches on combustion which effectively overthrew the phlogiston theory of Stahl; third, the law of conservation of mass; and fourth, the reform of chemical nomenclature, whereby every substance was assigned a definite name based upon the elements of which it was composed. The thirteen copperplate

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illustrations for the 'Traite' were drawn and engraved by Lavoisier's wife, a highly skilled draftswoman, engraver and painter who had studied under the artist Louis David." (H.F. Norman Lib. Cat. 1295). Only two copies of the trial first issue in one volume are known, while the second issue in two volumes has added to it two tables (pp.559619), approvals (pp.620653), and two pages of errata. Also in 1789 a pirated version of this book appeared with the plates reengraved, the type reset, and the misprints corrected. This pirated edition has the 'Nomenclature chimique' as a third volume. PMM 238. Grolier/Science 100, no. 64. Heralds of Science 43. Milestones of Science 127. Duveen & Kilickstein 154. Neville II.21 with facsimile of first title page. $3,800.

The Foundation of Organic Analysis 69. LIEBIG, JUSTUS (180373). Anleitung zur analyse organischer körper. Braunschweig: F. Vieweg, 1837. Among the rarest works of major significance in nineteenth century chemistry is this "Important publication of the constitution of organic compounds with descriptions in detail of the modern method of chemical analysis." (Grolier/Science 100, no. 67). "Liebig developed a combustion method for determining carbon, hydrogen, and hydrogen in organic compounds, a method still in use. This was first published in Poggendorff's 'Annalen' in 1831. His insistence that chemistry could be applied to agriculture marks the beginning of the practical applications of chemistry which dominated his life." (Heralds of Science 46). The practical large folding table was not included in the 1831 'Annalen' version nor in the appearance in the 'Handwörterbuch der Chemie', also published in 1837. It is clear from Liebig's preface (dated March 1837) that this separate edition was specifically intended for use in the laboratory. In fact, as noted on the folding table, a loose copy of it was to accompany the work for pasting up in the laboratory. These points, coupled with the likely wear and tear for a short, often unbound practical chemical work probably account for its rarity. See item 88 for Raspail's important 1838 edition in French. Paoloni 237. Bolton I. 624. Ferchl, p.315. Not in Neville. A second edition appeared in 1853. $2,400.

Otto Lehmann and the Discovery of Liquid Crystals A Collection

70. [LIQUID CRYSTALS]. "The ultimate manifestation of the liquid crystal display, or LCD as it has become known, is the largearea flat screen colour television. Today the LCD is ubiquitous and has a similar impact on human life as the discovery of the wheel. …The science of liquid crystals began more than a century ago with the baffling observation of two melting points in a single pure substance by a German botanist (Friedrich Reinitzer). The botanist passed his results to a physicist (Otto Lehmann), who realized that he was studying something interesting, but misidentified the physical phenomenon as crystalline in origin. Despite his misidentification, Lehmann gave us a name that stuck, , and our subject was born." (D. Dunmur & T. Sluckin, 'Soap, science, and flatscreen TVs A history of liquid crystals', 2011, Preface).

(1). REINITZER, FRIEDRICH. (18571927). Beiträge zur kenntniss der cholestrins. In: Monatschefte für chemie, vol. 9, pp. 421441, Vienna, 1889. (2). LEHMANN, OTTO (18551922). Molekularphysik mit besonderer berücksichtgung mikroskopischer untersuchungen und anleitung zu solchen sowie einem anhang über mikroskopische analyse. Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 188889. (3). LEHMANN. Die krystallanalyse oder die chemische analyse durch beobchtung der krystallbildung mit hülfe des mikroskops… Leipzig: W. Englemann, 1891.

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(4). LEHMANN. Flüssige kristalle. Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 1904. (5). WALLERANT, M.F. (18581936). Les corps cristallisés mous ou liquides; D'aprés MM. O. Lehmann et R. Schenck. (Paris), 1905. (6). LEHMANN. Flüssige kristalle und die theorien des lebens. Leipzig: J.J. Barth, 1906. (7). LEHMANN. Die scheinbar lebenden kristlle Esslingen & Munich: I. F. Schreiber, (1907). (8). LEHMANN. Flüssige kristalle und ihre analogien zu den niedrigsten lebewesen. Stuttgart, 1907. (9). LEHMANN. Flüssige kristalle, ihre entdeckung, bedeutung und ähnlichkeit mit lebewesen. In: Jahresbericht des physikalischen vereins zu Frankfurt am Main für das rechnungsjahr 19061907, pp. 68100, Frankfurt am Main, 1908. (10). LEHMANN. Flüssige kristalle und die theorien des lebens. Leipzig: J. A. Barth, 1908. (11). LEHMANN. Conference sur les cristaux liquids demandée á Paris le 14 April 1909 dans l'amphithéâtre de la Sorbonne avec 114 projections, l'une d'elles présentant des cristaux en apparance vivants avec le cinématographe. n.p., (Paris), 1909. (12). LEHMANN. Flüssige kristalle myelin formen und muskelkraft. München: Isaria, 1910. (13). LEHMANN. Das kristallisationsmikroskop und de damit gemachten entdeckungen insbesondere die der flüssigen kristalle. Braunschweig: F. Vieweg, 1910. (14). LEHMANN. Die neue welt der flüssigen kristalle. Leipzig: Acad. Verlags., 1911. (15). LEHMANN. Die lehre von den flüssigen krystallen und ihre beziehung zu den problemen der biologie. Wiesbaden: J. F. Berhmann, 1918. (16). LEHMANN. Flussige kristalle und ihr scheinbares leben. Leipzig: L. Voss, 1921. (17). LEHMANN. Eleven further offprints from 1885 to 1908.

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With his paper (1) in 1888, the German botanist, Friedrich Reinitzer, began the science of the fourth state of matter, liquid crystals. His surprising results with cholesteryl benzoate, two melting points and unusual color phenomena, led him to seek the expertise of the physical chemist and crystallographer, Otto Lehmann. Lehmann applied himself to Reinitzer's problem and published his first paper in 1889 on liquid crystals, 'Über fliessende krystalle' [(included in (17)]. From there Lehmann began a lifelong pursuit of liquid crystal phenomena publishing many papers and booklets, and two books (4) and (14). Lehmann's massive 1904 book is richly illustrated with many photomicrographs of liquid crystals reproduced from his own photographs by photolithography. An expert microscopist, Lehmann designed special microscopes to aid in his researches and published in 1910 (13), a detailed manual about them. (5), a paper by the French mineralogist and crystallographer, Frédéric Wallerant (18581936), coupled with his other 1905 paper (not present here) in the 'Comptes Rendus', signals the first French interest in liquid crystals. By 1909 Lehmann famously delivered with great success an extensively illustrated lecture at the Sorbonne (11). "His results astonished and perplexed the scientific world, since he demonstrated that the fluidity of many organic substances is not only equal to or greater than water but that they also display the double refracting properties of crystals, some being twice as birefringent as calcite." (D.S.B.) Lehmann received many honors for his work and between 1913 and 1922 he was nominated a number of times for the Nobel Prize in physics. Two of the publications [(5) and (11)] are from the Becquerel library. D.S.B. 8: 148149. P. J. Collings, 'Liquid crystals nature's delicate phase of matter', 1990. The Collection of 27 items: $6,000. 71. MACBRIDE, DAVID (172678). Experimental essays. London: A. Millar, 1764. The Dublin surgeon, David Macbride, made his reputation with this "…important book…" (Duveen, p. 375) which gives a good view of chemical ideas prior to Lavoisier. Macbride "…dealt with gases produced by fermentation processes… Macbride recognized van Helmont's 'gas sylvestre' as fixed air reported by other investigators. He measured the carbon dioxide content of various gas mixtures, using an apparatus credited to Black (see: Partington III, fig. 15). …Macbride also investigated the carbon dioxide in human blood; he concluded that it was carried in association with the red blood corpuscles." (Ihde, 'Develop. mod. chem.', p. 38). D.S.B. 8: 585586. Partington III. 143144. Neville II. 107. Cole 853. Bolton I. 644. $1,100. 72. MACQUER, PIERRE JOSEPH. Dictionnaire de chymie. Pari(s): Lacombe, 1766. "An encyclopedia of all that was then known about chemistry, the 'Dictionnaire' is Macquer's most important work and a milestone of chemical literature. …Containing more than five hundred articles in alphabetical order, it was preceded by a brief history of chemistry and set the pattern for many later chemical dictionaries. …Apart from missing 's' of 'Paris' and the presence or absence of asterisks before or after the signature letters, the title wording and texts of this copy and the copy designated state A are identical." (Neville II.112). Duveen, p. 377. Cole 863. Partington III. 81. Neville & Smeaton 1B. $1,600. 73. MEYER, JOHANN F. (170565). Chymische versuche. Hannover: J. W. Schmidt, 1770. In 1776 Lavoisier said "there are few modern books of chemistry which display more genius than this of M. Meyer." Considered by Neville (II. 168) as the definitive edition of the 1764 original, this book started a controversy with its theory of acidum pingue in opposition to Black's theory. Black held that the presence or absence of fixed air accounted for alkalinity. Despite distinguished support, Meyer's view lost its hold. The book also "…deals with electricity, posing the

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question if and to what extent acidum pingue is the cause of it." (Neville). D.S.B. 9: 346347. Bolton I. 667. Partington III. 145146. $1,350.

On Lavoisier's Chemical Nomenclature by the First Professor of Chemistry in America

74. MITCHILL, SAMUEL (17641831). Explanation of the synopsis of chemical nomenclature and arrangement: containing several important alterations of the plan originally reported by the French academicians NewYork: T. & J. Swords, 1801. . No complete American version of the important 'Méthode de nomenclature chimique' published at Paris in 1787 by Lavoisier, et al ever appeared (for the original see item 67). A number of smaller publications by American authors however were published. "The first publication on Lavoisier's terminology in America by the American Samuel Latham Mitchell, the first professor of chemistry in the U.S., 'Nomenclature of the new chemistry' (New York, 1894). Mitchell was destined to become one of the leading medical and scientific personages in the United States in the first decades of the nineteenth century…" (Duveen & Klickstein, 'The introduction of Lavoisier's chemical nomenclature into America', ISIS, vol. 45, pp. 278292, 368382, 1954). Mitchill's chemical course was based on the systematization of the 'Table of Nomenclature', and it in its period was akin to the teaching of chemistry based on the periodic table which arose later in the 19th century. "In 1801 Samuel L. Mitchill drew up a second work on chemical nomenclature, 'Explanation…' a work quite unlike the 1794 'Nomenclature…' The volume contains an oversized chart… accompanied by an explanatory text. …Mitchill formulated his new nomenclature classification on an 'atomistic' basis; a lengthy explanation of 'atoms' (pp. 317) is given in the text. The acceptance of the Boscovich concept of atoms by Mitchill is characterized by the titleheadings of the chart… Despite its shortcomings, the Mitchill nomenclature chart was an excellent summation of Lavoisier's terminology…" (ibid). E. F. Smith, 'Chem. in Amer.', 1914, pp. 148149. B. Silliman, Jr., 'Amer. contributions to chem.', 1874, pp. 1314. Bolton, p. 70. Cole 944. Edelstein 1625. Not in Neville or Smith. $3,500.

Classic of Military Engineering Important in the Development of the Steel Industry 75. MONGE, GASPARD (17461818). Description de l'art de fabriquer les canons. Paris: l'Imprimerie de Comité de Salut Public, An 2 (1794). "Applied science under the Terror" (Sotheran/Zeitlinger, vol. 2, no.12018). The inventor of descriptive geometry, Gaspard Monge, was in 1793 with his friend and colleague chemist, Claude Berthollet, engaged in restocking the French arsenals against an anticipated outside attack. "The entire nation was mobilized. Under Monge's direction bulletins were sent to every town, farmstead, and village in France telling the people what to do. Led by Berthollet the chemists invented new and better methods for refining the raw material and simplified the manufacture of gunpowder. The whole of France became a vast powder factory. The chemists also showed the people where to find tin and copper in clock metal and church bells. Monge was the soul of it all. With his prodigious capacity for work he spent his days supervising the foundries and arsenals, and his nights writing bulletins for the direction of the workers, and throve on it. His bulletin on 'The Art of Manufacturing Cannon' became the factory handbook." (E.T. Bell, 'Men of mathematics', 1937, pp. 188189). The detailed copperplates illustrate every conceivable aspect of manufacture of cannon at the end of the 18th century, while the implications of this treatise were widely felt in the 19th century in the development of the steel industry and modern machinery. D.S.B. 9: 469478. Neville II. 182. $1,350.

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First Latin Edition of a Classic Text on the Secrets of Glassmaking 76. NERI, ANTONIO (1576c.1614). De art vitraria libri septem, & in eosdem Christoph. Merretti observationes & notae. Amsterdam: A. Frisius, 1668. "Neri is remembered only for 'L'arte veraria' (1612), a little book in which many, although by no means all, of the closely guarded secrets of glassmaking were printed for the first time. ...The main part of the text deals with the coloring of glass with metallic oxides to give not only clear and uniform colors but also various veined effects. There are chapters on making lead glass of high refractive index and enamel (opaque) glass by the addition of tin oxide." (D.S.B.). Neri's unillustrated book was considerably extended over the next two centuries with the addition of copperplates and commentary. The present edition, the first appearance of the text in Latin (rendered by Andreas Frisius), was translated from the English version prepared by Christopher Merrett for the Royal Society in 1662. Merrett's 'observations' doubled the length of the book and appear here on pages 233 to 455. Duveen, p. 427. Ferguson II. 134. Smith Coll., p. 342. $1,250. 77. NERNST, WALTHER (18641941). Die theoretischen und experimentellen grundlagen des neuen wärmesatzes. Halle: W. Knapp, 1918. "Chemical thermodynamics, which was built up during the latter part of the nineteenth century, mainly by Gibbs and van't Hoff, was extended in 1906 by the German chemist, Walther Nernst, by what he himself called its third (and last) law. Its formulation was the result of attempts to find a general method for calculating chemical equilibrium from thermal data. ...It finally became clear that by formulating his principle and by his comprehensive determinations of specific heats at low temperatures, Nernst had made a contribution of fundamental importance to the development of chemistry. The 1920 prize was therefore, awarded to him in 1921 'in recognition of his work in thermochemistry'." ('Nobel the man and his prizes', 1962). In the present summary work, with the fullest treatment of the new Heat Theorem, Nernst gave "...in a most comprehensive way his mature ideas on chemical thermodynamics." (D.S.B.). Partington IV. 633636. $800.

"…the first exposition of Stahl's phlogiston theory in English" 78. [NEUMANN, CASPAR (16831737)]. The chemical works of Caspar Neumann... Abridged and methodized. With large additions... by William Lewis. London: W. Johnston..., 1759. Large as this book is, it is based on an abridged version of Caspar Neumann’s lectures which originally appeared in seven volumes. The two volume Zullichau abridgment of 1756 was probably translated into English by William Lewis’ (170881) assistant, Alexander Chisholm, and supplemented by Lewis, to which he also added his extensive notes. Neumann was Court Apothecary in Berlin, 171937. "The work is an epitome of the chemical knowledge of the time and contains the first exposition of Stahl’s phlogiston theory in English." (Cole 973). In its three parts, Neumann treats the chemical history of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms. D.S.B. 10: 2526. Partington II. 703. III. Bolton I. 698. Ferguson II. 137. Neville II. 222. Neu 2937. See: Hoover Coll., no. 608. $950. 79. NICHOLSON, WILLIAM (17531815). The first principles of chemistry. London: Robinson, 1790. William Nicholson is known for his translations of important French chemical works into English, his chemical dictionary (1795), his influential 'Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and the Arts' (begun 1797), and the present work. "The text is divided into two books, I. general chemistry includes heat, construction of thermometers, combustion, methods of making experiments with

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gases, an account of balances and elective attractions; II. includes general principles of bodies, acids, metals, mineral combustibles, vegetable and animal products." (Cole, 'Chem. Lit. 17001860', no. 976). Nicholson's discussion of thermometry and the phlogiston theory is of interest. Partington III. 490. D.S.B. 10: 107109. Neville II. 228. Bolton I. 700. Neu 2948. Duveen, p.431. Smith Coll., p. 347. Edelstein 1704. $1,100. 80. NOLL, HEINRICH (fl. 1612). Naturae sanctuarium: quod est, physica Hermetica. Frankfurt: N. Hoffmann, 1619. "Heinrich Nolle, or Noll, or Nollius, flourished in the first quarter of the seventeenth century. He was a teacher at the Gymnasium at Steinfurt in Westphalia, professor of philosophy at the newlyfounded University of Giessen, and pastor in Darmstadt." (Ferguson II. 139). "This work, written along the lines of Wecker's 'Books of Secrets', contains a discussion of the physical principles and concepts of nature as then understood. Strongly alchemical, as the title page states, the book deals rather with the 'hidden secrets of nature' than with practical chemistry. The appendix (pp. 687792) comprises two alchemical tracts, containing references to the Smaragdine Tables of Hermes, with quotations from the works of Geber, Lull, Paracelsus, Basil Valentine, Sendivogius, et al. Writing in 1906, Ferguson states that books by Nollius were rare in the 1780's." (Neville II. 234). Ferguson, 'Biblio. notes hist. inventions books of secrets', 1959, Part I, p. 16. Duveen, p. 433. Edelstein 1710. $1,850.

Classic of Stereochemistry 81. PASTEUR, LOUIS (182295). Recherches sur la dissymétrie moléculaire des produits organiques naturels. In: Lecons de chimie professées en 1860 par MM. Pasteur, Cahours, Wurtz, Berthelot, SainteClaire Deville, Barral, et Dumas. Paris: L. Hachette, 1861. 'En Francais dans le texte', no. 272. This volume "admirably summarized" Pasteur’s "...views on molecular asymmetry and optical activity as they stood at the end of his active research on the problem..." (D.S.B.). His memoir, which had been delivered in 1860 as a paper before the Société Chimique de Paris, was translated into English as 'On the asymmetry of naturally occurring organic compounds' and appeared as the first entry in 'The foundations of stereochemistry', New York, 1901. A German translation had appeared in Ostwald's 'Klassiker' in 1891. Pasteur’s "...first major research, done at the École Normale, concerned tartaric acid (a byproduct in wine making). Biot (Pasteur dedicated the present memoir to him) had shown that one form of the acid is optically active... Pasteur examined a salt of the optically inactive form of tartaric acid and showed that the crystals were of two kinds, which were nonsuperposable mirrorimages of each other... He separated these and showed they were both active, with equal and opposite rotation. He deduced, correctly, that the molecules themselves must therefore be dissymmetric, a fundamental idea and one that was more fully explored by van’t Hoff. It was the beginning of stereochemistry." ('Cambridge Dict. Scientists'). Partington IV. 751. A.J. Ihde, 'Development of modern chemistry', 1964, pp. 321324. See: PMM 336a, Pasteur's 1853 paper for the 'Comptes Rendus' with the same title. Not in Neville. $1,600.

Early Illustrated French Industrial Chemistry Manuscripts 82. PAYEN, ANSELME (17951871). Autograph manuscript books of industrial chemical processes. (Paris, 1820s).

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The French chemist, Anselme Payen who studied under Vauquelin and Chevreul is perhaps best known for his discovery with J.F. Persoz of diastase in 183334. This was the first enzyme to be isolated. In 1836, Payen isolated and named cellulose. Payen developed processes for refining sugar and starch and to obtain alcohol from potatoes. He invented a decolorimeter. Early in his career, at age 23, his father entrusted Payen with the direction of a borax refinery, one of several chemical manufacturing plants founded by JeanBaptiste Payen. "After supervising his own bestsugar factory, Payen began teaching industrial chemistry in 1829 at the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures. Ten years later he was also appointed to teach at the Conservatoire des Arts et Méteirs, although he did not abandon his industrial interests." (Neville I. 279, also see pp. 280281). Payen became a member of the Academy of Sciences in 1842. The American Chemical Society awards an annual Anselme Payen Prize. The books cover a number of industrial chemical operations with his drawings being an especial feature of the presentations. These illustrations compare favorably to the more precise ones by him for his master work (offered below) on industrial chemistry. In one Payen reviews the porcelain manufacturing at Chantilly. This account is dated 22 October 1824. Included, as well, is a pedagogical outline of seventeen 'lecons' on botany and in that same book written from the other end are notes dated 1826. These include cost accounting for projects and extensive explanations of numerous mathematical formulae. An important, unstudied resource on the early activities of the leading industrial chemist of the period. D.S.B. 10: 436. Joseph S. Fruton, 'Molecules and life', 1972, pp. 6667. Poggendorff II.380382. Partington IV. 429. (See item 83). $3,000. 83. PAYEN, ANSELME (17951871). Précis de chimie industrielle. Paris: L. Hachette, 1859. Tutored by his father who owned a sal ammoniac factory outside of Paris, Payen studied chemistry privately with Vauquelin and Chevreul. Like his father, he entered the business world of industrial and agricultural chemistry. "In 1829 Payen began to teach industrial chemistry at the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures; ten ears later he was appointed to a similar chair at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers, although he did not abandon his industrial interests." (D.S.B.). In 1849 appeared his large, wellillustrated work on the subject. "This encyclopedic treatise, his most important publication, provides an indepth view of the state of chemical technology in the midnineteenth century." (Neville II. 279 1st ed.). Ferchl considered this work the best on technical chemistry for the period. Many editions appeared including translations into German (187274) and English (1878). Bolton I. 724. $750.

Important Works in the Development of the Periodic Table A Collection

84. [PERIODIC TABLE]. This small collection, arranged in chronological order, only touches on the large literature on the subject of major importance to the history of chemistry: the development of the chemical periodic table. Its history is not simple; there is a priority controversy, ignored publications, and a myriad of proposed systems and graphic forms. Nonetheless, virtually every chemistry classroom or teaching laboratory has a similar periodic table chart on display, the foundation of the science and an essential tool. The collection contains a number of rarities and special copies. (1). MENDELEEV, DMITRY I. (18341907). Polozhenija, 'zbrannyia dilia zashchishchenia na stepen' magistra khimii. St. Petersburg: Vn'shchney Torgovli, 1856. . (2). CAHOURS, AUGUSTE (181391). Lecons de chimie générale élémentaire. Paris: MalletBachelier, 1856.

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(3). BÉGUYER DE CHANCOURTOIS, ALEXANDREEMILE (18201862). Extrait d'un mémoire sur un classem*nt naturel des corps simples ou radicaux appelé vis tellurique. [Colophon (pp. 4 & 12) Paris: MalletBachelier, (7 April 1862, 21 April 1862, & 5 May 1862)]. (4). BÉGUYER DE CHANCOURTOIS, A.E. Mémoire sur un classem*nt naturel des corps simples ou radicaux appelé vis tellurique. With: Addition au mémoire... With: Addition… (5). MEYER, JULIUS LOTHAR (183095). Die nature der chemischen elemente als function ihrer atomgewichte. In: Annalen der chemmie und pharmacie. Supplementband, vol. 7, heft 3, pp. 354364 + folding chart. Leipzig and Heidelberg: C.F. Winter, 1870. (6). BAUMHAUER, HEINRICH (18481926). Die bezielhungen zwischen dem atomgewichte und der nature der chemischen elemente. Braunschweig: F. Vieweg, 1870. (7). CARNELLEY, THOMAS (185290). Author's bound volume of offprints and pamphlets published 1873 to 1890. (8). WURTZ, ADOLPHE (181784). La théorie atomique. Paris: Germer Bailliére, 1879. (9). MENDELEEV, DMITRY I. (8341907). Osnovy khimii. St. Petersburg Rip. V. Demakova, 1881(82). (10). MUIR, M.M. PATTISON (18481931). A treatise on the principles of chemistry. Cambridge: Univ. Press, 1884.

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(11). NEWLANDS, JOHN A.R. On the discovery of the periodic law, and on the relations among the atomic weights. London: Spon, 1884. (12). MENDELEEV, DMITRY I. (18341907). Osnovy khimii. St Petersburg: T.p. V. Demakova, 1889. (13). MENDELEEV, DMITRY I. (18341907). Grundlagen der chemie. St. Petersburg: Carl Ricker, 1891. (14). MENDELEEV, DMITRY I. (18341907). The principles of chemistry. London: Longmans, Green, 1891. (15). RAMSAY, WILLIAM (18521916). A system of inorganic chemistry. London: J. & A. Churchill, 1891. (16). HINRICHS, GUSTAV D. (18361923). The true atomic weights of the chemical elements and the unity of matter. St. Louis, MO: Carl Gustav Hinrichs, 1894. (17). MENDELEEV, DMITRY I. (18341907). Des natürliche system der chemischen elemente. Abhandlungen von Lothar Meyer (18641869) und D. Mendelejeff (18691871). Herausgegeben von Karl Seubert. Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 1895. (18). MENDELEEV, DMITRY I. (18341907). An attempt towards a chemical conception of the ether. London: Longmans, Green, 1904. Beginning with the master's thesis (1) on molar volumes that the young Mendeleev presented on 9 September 1856 at the Univ. of St. Petersburg, one finds the first signs of his thinking on a periodicity to the chemical elements. "In this work he expressed his adherence to the chemical ideas of Gerhardt, to which he remained loyal throughout his life. 'Among other topics, he made known his agreement with unitary and type theories and his opposition to Berzelius' electrolyte theory of the formation of chemical compounds'. (D.S.B.). Atomic and molecular weights of inorganic compounds are discussed, and this early work contains the germs of ideas that led him to formulate the periodic law of the elements. …This work is of the utmost rarity…" (Neville II. 163). Inspection of Mendeleev's listing of atomic weights reveals that he does arrange some of them in what would later form groups in the periodic table. Further discussion of the relevance of this thesis to the

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development of the periodic law is in A. Greenberg's 'The art of chemistry', 2003, pp. 250259 with facsimiles of the title page and four pages. Prior to the epochal 'Principles of chemistry', Mendeleev published a textbook on organic chemistry (1861; 2nd ed. , 1863), translated into Russian Wagner's 'Technology' (186269) and the chemistry text (2) by Cahours, professor of chemistry in Paris. "Cahours's book included a full chapter on chemical classifications, which not only reviewed earlier attempts at ordering the elements but also remarked that several properties (volatility, metallic state, density, affinity for hydrogen and oxygen, and so on) underwent gradual changes when elements in each family were arranged in increasing atomic (or equivalent) weights.' (Kaji et al, 'Early responses to the periodic system', Oxford Univ. Press, 2015, chap. 10). Mendeleev chose to translate Cahours even though other textbooks of the period also addressed the issue of classification. The history of the periodic table is populated with very many methods of arranging and displaying the elements based on an understanding of the guiding principles. The preMendeleev table of the French geologist Béguyer de Chancourtois (3 & 4) was in spiral form on a cylinder with the periodic relationships evident by moving vertically downward along the surface. "There are valid reasons for declaring that the periodic system was essentially discovered in 1862 by De Chancourtois… (He) appears to have taken not just an important step in the story of the periodic system, in many ways, the single most important step. It was he who first recognized that the properties of the elements are a periodic function of their atomic weights…" (E.R. Scerri, 'The periodic table its story and its significance', 2007). "De Chancourtois's system did not create much impression on chemists…The original article (4) failed to include a diagram, mainly because of the complexity faced by the publisher in trying to reproduce it, with the result that its visual force was lost… Frustrated… De Chancourtois had his system republished in 1863 (3), but, because it was published privately, this further article received even less notice…" (Scerri). Here it is offered in a very rare presentation copy of the 'Telluric Screw' table which is nearly six feet long (!) and only reproduced in part, if at all, in scholarly publications. Perhaps the most important contender for the originator of the periodic system is Lothar Meyer who drew up a table of elements in 1862 (published in 'Die modernen theorie der chemie', in 1864) and published in a classic paper (5) in 1870. His plot of atomic volume versus atomic weight yielded a strong demonstration of the periodicity of the elements. Lothar Meyer's tentativeness and lack of predictions for gaps in the table (unlike Mendeleev) in part led to his alsoran status. Among the first alternatives to the organization of the elements in a table was a spiral arrangement by the German mineralogist and chemist, Baumhauer who studied under Kekulé. He included in his 1870 pamphlet (6) Mendeleev's table of 1860 and Lothar Meyer's table of 1870. Mendeleev had a high regard for the work of Thomas Carnelley especially his discovery of the periodicity in magnetic properties. Carnelley held the first chair of chemistry at the Univ. of Dundee. Partington IV. 897 notes eight papers on periodicity by Carnelley, and M. D. Grodin ('A wellordered thing', 2004) cites three papers, all present in Carnelley's own comprehensive volume of his offprints and pamphlets (7). On Carnelley and periodicity also see: Scerri; F. P. Venable, 'The development of the periodic law, 1869; J. W. van Spronsen', 'The periodic system of chemical elements', 1969. "One of the best histories of the development of the chemical atomic theory to appear in the nineteenth century" (Neville II.642) was by the French chemist, Adolphe Wurtz, a pioneer of synthetic organic chemistry (8). This book was involved in the Mendeleev/Lothar Meyer priority controversy (van Spronsen, pp. 343344). Now we come to Mendeleev himself with a rare significant presentation copy of the fourth edition of 'Osnovy khimii' (9) in exceptionally fine condition. Of course it includes his periodic table of elements, and importantly, his second successful prediction in which ekaboron is shown to be the recently discovered scandium. This fourth edition is organized like the third though slightly larger format. Like the third, the chapters were completely reorganized in agreement with the periodic law. The fifth edition of Mendeleev's textbook (12) was considerably larger and printed for the first time in double columns. More material was now in the extensive footnotes. The chapter on periodic law was expanded to include the history of its discovery and the issue concerning priority. It is this fifth edition that was translated into English, German, and French. An early account of the periodic law to appear in an English chemical textbook is in Muir's 'Principles of chemistry' (10) of 1884 (Partington IV. 897 and Kaji et al, p. 88). "There can be no doubt, that Newlands ranks among the true pioneers of the modern periodic system, particular for being the first to recognize explicitly the existence of the periodic law, which in many ways is the real crux of

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the matter." (Scerri). …he divided them into natural families and periods, but for this law of octaves he gained nothing but public ridicule from the English Chemical Society." (M. E. Weeks, 'Discovery of the elements', 1956). In 1884, Newlands collected his papers on the subject into the present book (11) in an attempt to support his priority over Mendeleev. In 1891, both the first edition in German (13) and in English (14) of Mendeleev's fifth edition of 'Osnovy khimii' appeared. In the latter we find that Crum Brown [see (9)] is referenced on pages 75 and 296 of volume 2. The first systematic textbook in English (15) based upon the periodic arrangement of the elements was published in 1891 by the 1904 Nobel laureate, William Ramsay, see: Kaji et al, pp. 8889. Yet another claimant to priority was the somewhat eccentric GermanAmerican Gustavus Hinrichs. Publishing in a number of foreign languages, the present book (16) gives in English an extended discussion of his claims and criticisms; see the account in Scerri, pages 86 to 92, which includes the illustration of his spiral periodic system (also found in van Spronsen, p. 121). Among Ostwald's 'Klassiker' is this important volume (17) containing the first translation from the Russian of Mendeleev's key 1869 'On the correlation between the properties of the elements and their atomic weights'. Three other papers form 1869 and 1871 by Mendeleev are included along with two by Lothar Meyer. "Mendeleev was clearly a believer in the ether. His explanation was straightforwardly chemical and constructed from his Periodic Table and the newly discovered inert gases. …He postulates that the ether is composed of atoms of an asyetunknown superlight inert gas. …He fits the 'ether element' into his Periodic Table in Group O to the left of hydrogen and the alkali metals." (A. Greenberg, 'A chemical history tour', 2000, pp. 257258 with facsimile table). Further references: Oliver Sacks, 'Best invention; everything in its place', N.Y.T. Mag., April 18, 1999. Michal Meyer, 'An element of order', Chem. Heritage, Summer 2013. William B. Jensen, 'Mendeleev on the periodic law selected writings, 18691905, (2002). M. D. Gordin, 'Scientific Babel', 2015. $48,000.

A Remarkable Copy Which Links Two Early Nobel Laureates This Copy Printed on Special Paper

85. PERRIN, JEAN (1870 1942). Les atoms. (Paris): F. Alcan, 1913. An influential book of the period in a remarkable presentation copy on special paper. "His most fundamental conclusion that he had finally uncovered irrefutable proof for the real existence of atoms contrary to the assertations and expectations of Ostwald, Mach, and others was soon universally accepted and popularized in his book 'Les atomes' (1913), which went through many editions and translations." (D.S.B.). Jean Perrin was awarded the 1926 Nobel Prize "for his work concerning the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of the equilibrium of sedimentation." Sir William Ramsay's "...achievement is unique in the history of the discovery of the chemical elements. Never before had a single scientist found a whole group of new elements. Moreover, they were chemically inert, and thus of a hitherto unknown type of great theoretical interest. ...Ramsay received the Prize for Chemistry for his discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air and his determinations of their place in the periodic system..." ('Nobel the man and his prizes', 1962, pp.366367). $1,750. 86. PERRIN, JEAN (18701942). Notice sur les travaux scientifiques. Toulouse: E. Privat, 1923.

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Perrin's valuable detailed summary of his scientific achievements which he divides into four broad categories: rayons cathodiques et rayons X, électrisation de contact, atomistique, enseignement et publications diverses. With a bibliography and a list of awards and titles. $775. 87. PRIESTLEY, JOSEPH (17331804). Experiments and observations on different kinds of air, and other branches of natural philosophy, connected with the subject. Birmingham: T. Pearson, 1790. Priestley's most important work detailing his experiments 'on different kinds of air' and 'various branches of natural philosophy' (177477, 177986) appeared at London in six volumes. Here in 1790 Priestley notes "…a complete set cannot be had new, it seemed more advisable to the whole work, than the former volumes." It is here that Priestley "…declared specifically that he told Lavoisier of his experiments (on oxygen) during his visit to Paris." (D.N.B.). In this edition are also his experiments on the thermal conductibility of gases. Partington III. 244. VI. Crook S/460462. Neu 3364. Cole 1065. Neville II. 336. $1,500.

Including a Classic on Analytical Organic Chemistry and

An Early Text on Chemistry Under the Microscope A Period Sammelband Likely from the Author's Library

88. RASPAIL, FRANCOIS V. (17941878). A periodbound volume likely from Raspail's library. (1). Manuel pour l'analyse des substances organiques, par J. Liebig… Suivi de l'examine critique des procédés et des résultats de l'analyse des corps organizes, par F.V. Raspail. Paris: Bailliére, 1838. (2). Essai de chimie microscopique appliqué a la physiologie… Paris: for the Author and Meilhac, 1830. (3). Expériences chimiques et physiologiques, ayant pour objet de determiner le méchanisme de la circulation dans les entrenoeuds de Chara… (Paris: Plassan, 1829). (4). A.L.S. by Numa Grar preceding Baudrimont and Grar's De la culture de la Betterave et de l'extraction du sucre qu'elle contient (Paris, Nov. 1835), and Raspail's solicited response Topograhie de la substance saccharine dans la Betterave. (Paris: Feb. 1838). (5). LEROI, J.A. and VANDERHENCKE. Recherches microscopiques sur L'Acarus scabiei, ou insecte de la Gale de l'homme. Versailles: MontalantBougleux, 1835. (6). A.L.S. 17 April 1839 on Librairie Sociale letterhead to Raspail signed by J. Czynski. (7). A.L.S. by Raymond Brucker on 26 April 1839 preceding Bruckler's Epître a Raspail. Paris: Librairie Sociale, 1839. Though there is no ownership bookplate or signature, it is likely that this volume came from Raspail's library. The pieces and letters focus on his output and activities in the decade of the 1830s. Of scientific publications credited to him, two salient chemical works are here: Raspail's critical edition of Liebig's important treatise on organic analysis (1), see item 69 for the 1837 original edition and Neville II. 72. Also present is Raspail's 1830 'Essai de chimie microscopique' (2) published three years in advance of his famous text on the subject that is the recognized foundation work of histochemistry, the 'Nouveau systeme de chimie organique' (1833), see Neville II.354. The plates for Leroi's work on the itch mite are amplified by the inclusion of those prepared by Raspail. It was Raspail who had determined the agent for scabies. The volume concludes with the long poem by Brucker in appreciation of Raspail the revolutionary. D.S.B. 11: 300302. D. B. Weiner, 'Raspail, scientist and reformer' (1968). Paoloni 261. $3,000.

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Early Chemistry Sets 89. REECE, RICHARD (17751831). The chemical guide, or complete companion to the portable chest of chemistry. London: Longman…, 1814. "A rare book that was intended to accompany Reece's 'Portable Laboratory'. The chemistry set, or 'portable laboratory', came into use at the end of the eighteenth century, and with the advent of lectures at the Royal Institution and other places chemical experiments by amateurs and professionals became a popular pastime. …A successful London physician, Reece sold drugs and 'chemical preparations of the purest quality' at the Chemical and Medical Hall, in Piccadilly. He also sold portable chests of chemistry, drugs, minerals and apparatus…" (Neville II. 361). Pages viiixii describe and price such sets. Cole 1103. Not in Bolton, Duveen, Smith, Edelstein, or Partington. $1,250.

"anticipatory glimpse of what was to become a fundamental chemical discovery" 90. REY, JEAN (c. 1582/831645 or after). Essays sur le recherche de la cause pour laquelle l'estain & le plomb augmentent de poids quand on les calcine. Paris: Ruault, 1777. The historian of science, Douglas McKie, in his introduction to the facsimile (London, 1951) of the 1630 original Rey 'Essays' discusses the rarity of it (at the time: 7 copies known, 5 in French libraries) and its rediscovery by Bayen in 1775. "From the time of Bayen's letter Rey's 'Essays' have exerted a continuous fascination upon all chemists, perhaps on account of the author's quaint and confident style, perhaps because of his anticipatory glimpse of what was to become a fundamental chemical discovery [describing for the first time that metals gain weight on calcination by combination with the oxygen of the air], and perhaps because no one who has laboured in the scientific quarry can fail to be stirred by Rey's assertation that 'by a single experiment all opinions contrary to mine are utterly refuted' ('Essay' XXV)." D.S.B. 9: 389. Partington II. 631ff & III. 112. Bolton I. 772. Neville II. 372. Cole 461. Hoover Coll. 683. $3,600.

With Mounted Colored Samples of Chemical Compounds 91. RUNGE, FRIEDLIEB F. (17941867). Grundriss de chemie. Munich: G. Franz, 184647. "An important treatise on the preparations, properties, and uses of inorganic pigments and dyes, by the codiscoverer of aniline dyes made from compounds isolated from coal tar. …In these two volumes 'the colors of chemical bodies, precipitates, etc., are indicated by pigments inserted on squares in the text' (Bolton)." (Neville II. 407). Partington IV. 183184. D.S.B. 11: 615616. $1,500.

Nobel Prize, 1912 The Author's Copy 92. SABATIER, PAUL (18541941). Catalysis in organic chemistry. Translated by E. Emmet Reid. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1922. Paul Sabatier was professor of chemistry at Toulouse from 1884 to 1930. "In 1897 Sabatier showed how various organic compounds could undergo hydrogenation... (He) discussed the whole problem in his book, 'Le catalyse en chimie organique' (1912), published the same year in which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for chemistry for his work on catalytic hydrogenations." (Biog. Encyclo. of Scientists). Sabatier's translator of this work, E. Emmet Reid (18721973), a student of Ira Remsen,

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was professor of chemistry at John Hopkins where he pursued research in organic synthesis and became a pioneer in chemical warfare. $1,200. 93. SAUSSURE, HORACE BÉNÉDICT DE (174099). Essais sur l'hygrométrie. Neuchatel: S. Fauche, 1783. The engraving heading the first page of text puts two putti in a laboratory, one is seated playing with a Saussure hair hygrometer while the other gives him a haircut! In this way we are introduced to a classic of experimental science in which the Swiss geologist and physicist describes his findings with his hair hygrometer (pl. 1). Saussure capitalizes on the 2.4% change in length of an individual strand of human hair between dry and saturated atmospheric conditions to obtain a measure of relative humidity. Here "(he)…also enunciated his theory of the evaporation of water in hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and other gases. Cuvier regarded this book as one of the greatest contributions to science of the eighteenth century." (Neville II. 427). D.S.B. 12: 119123. Milestones of Science 174. H. F. Norman Lib. Cat. 1894. $1,300.

Scheele's Discovery of Oxygen in English 93a. SCHEELE, CHARLESWILLIAM (174286). Chemical observations and experiments on air and fire. With a prefatory Introduction by Tobern Bergman; translated from the German by J. R. Forster. To which are added Notes by Richard Kirwan with a letter to him from Joseph Priestley. London: J. Johnson, 1780. Though the Swedish chemist, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, discovered oxygen in the early 1770s, his researches did not appear until 1777 in German published at Uppsala & Leipzig. The delay was due to Bergman's tardy delivery of the promised preface. In the meantime, Priestley published his own independent discovery of oxygen in 1774. The Warrington Academy chemist, John E. Forster (172998), has added to his translation a long dedication to Joseph Priestley (17371864), important notes by the Irish/ English chemist, Richard Kirwan (17331812), concerning the differences in the viewpoints of Scheele and Priestley, and a letter, dated Aug. 1780, from Priestley to Kirwan. In addition to the discovery of oxygen, Scheele's book includes his work on the photosensitive nature of silver chloride in advance of its application to photography, see: H. Gernsheim, 'Hist. photography', 1969, pp. 3233. Partington III. 211, 220229. Sotheran/Zeitlinger, vol.2, no.14698. Bolton I.802. Cole 1164. Neville I. 430431. See: Grolier 100/Science, no. 92 and Heralds of Science 41 orig. 1777 ed. $2,750. 94. SCHEELE, CHARLESWILLIAM (174286). The chemical essays… Translated from the Transactions of the Academy of Sciences at Stockholm. With Additions. London: J. Murray, 1786. "A monumental work containing a collection of essays on discoveries by Scheele, which had been published in Swedish in the Stockholm Academy transactions." (Neville II.429). The translation is due to F. X. Schwediauer and improved by Thomas Beddoes who also added notes. "Some of Scheele's most important memoirs are included: e.g., his discovery of hydrofluoric nitrosulphonic, molybdic, tungstic, arsenious and arsenic acids among inorganic compounds; and benzoic, citric, gallic, lactic, malic, oxalic, uric and other organic acids. Scheele also independently discovered or prepared chlorine baryta, oxygen, hydrogen sulphide, glycerol, lactose, and other compounds." (Neville). Other discoveries and methods are also included. Partington III.211. Sotheran/Zeitlinger, vol. 1, no.4229. Bolton I.802. Cole 1167. Duveen, p. 533. $1,800. 95. SHEPARD, CHARLES UPHAM (180486). Syllabus to lectures on chemistry. Charleston, South Carolina: S. Babco*ck, 1841.

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Shepard had joint appointments at Amherst College, Yale, and the Medical College of the State of South Carolina where he was professor of chemistry 183460 and 186569. His 'Syllabus' gave a larger space to organic chemistry than usual "…occasioned by a desire to bring forward the new and profound results in this department; and which are too recent in their origin to be found as yet in the textbooks and systems of science." (Advertisem*nt, p. iv). The stab holes visible in the gutter margin suggest that the 'Syllabus' was issued in wrappers and/or in parts. See item 115 for his text on mineralogy. Bolton I. 831. Cole 1209. Not in Neville, Smith, or Edelstein. $875. 96. SLARE, FREDERICK (1647?1727). Experiments and observations upon Oriental and other bezoarstones… To which is annex'd A vindication of sugars against the charge of Dr. Willis… Together with further discoveries and remarks. London: Tim. Goodwin, 1715. "The distinguished chemist and physician F. Slare was elected F.R.S. (1680) and graduated M.D. (Oxford, 1680). …In the present work Slare disproves the supposedly miraculous medicinal virtues of animal calculi, by means of 'chemical fires' (i.e. chemical analysis). In the second part he argues cogently for the inclusion of more sugar from various sources in the diet. Many chemical experiments are described, some of which represent very early attempts to analyze an organic compound. …Newton owned a copy of this work." (Neville II. 483). Ferguson Coll., p. 657. Neu 3851. $1,250.

Classic of Atomic Weight Determination With Remarkable Provenance: Stas to Kekulé then Baeyer's

97. STAS, JEAN S. (181391). Nouvelles recherches sur les lois des proportions chimiques, sur les poids atomiques. Brussels: M. Hayez, 1865. "The second of the two great milestone works of Stas, in which he describes further experiments on the very accurate determination of atomic weights of the elements by chemical methods. …'The appearance of this monumental work, which will remain one of the classics of chemistry, created a great impression. Its effect persists to this day. It constituted a model and furnished a standard which each successive worker has striven to emulate, with the result that atomic weights today are among the best ascertained of physical constants.' (Thorpe, 'History of Chemistry', II, 7577)." (Neville II.517). Kekulé contributed significantly to this accomplishment by Stas: his work is reported as a collaborator in at least five locations in the text. Kekulé, of course, is well known for his structure of the benzene ring and for laying the foundation of structural chemistry. Baeyer's Nobel achievement was described by a member of the Committee and a former student, O. Widman: "Baeyer has worked in all possible fields off organic chemistry. Everywhere his work has broken new ground. …He has shown comparatively little interest in theories, even though we owe to him several brilliant ones. In this respect he has been, as he himself said recently, the direct opposite of his teacher Kekulé. Kekulé was the born general who wanted to command nature.

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Baeyer's guiding principle has been that a natural scientist should not but to what nature herself has to say." ('Nobel the man and his prize', 1962). Bolton I. 849. Partington IV.876877. Smith Coll., p. 465. $2,750.

The Important Doctoral Thesis of the 1926 Nobel Laureate Presentation Copy 98. SVEDBERG, THE (18841971). Studien zur lehre von den kollioden lösungen. Upsala: Akademische Buchdrucherei, 1907. Svedberg received the 1926 Nobel Prize in chemistry: "for his work on disperse systems". "In his doctoral thesis, 'Studien…', published in 1907, Svedberg communicated his first results in the field of colloid research. He described a method he had worked out for the production of metal colloids in various media by electric pulverization, with which he had succeeded in producing an entire series of new systems of great interest. His thesis also included investigations of the peculiar movement of colloidal particles called the Brownian movement after the discoverer, the English botanist, Robert Brown." ('Nobel the man and his prizes', 1962). Some years later, Svedberg invented the ultracentrifuge which became an indispensable aid in studying high molecular substances and their molecular weights. D.S.B. 13: 158164. $750.

Presentation Copy to His Colleague, Gaspard Monge 99. THENARD, LOUIS JACQUES (17771857). Traité de chimie élémentaire théorique et pratique. Paris: Crochaard, 1813141516. Thenard, who began his chemical career as a laboratory assistant to Vauquelin, eventually succeeded him at the École Polytechnique. He dedicated this large work to GayLussac with whom he collaborated. Partington (IV.9096) called it "an excellent textbook." Only the fourth volume on chemical analysis received an edition in English (1819). A sixth edition appeared in 183436. "Thenard was the author of a large and important chemistry textbook… The first two volumes dealt with inorganic chemistry, the third with organic chemistry, … and the fourth with analytical chemistry. …Besides drawing on previous textbooks such as those of Lavoisier, Fourcroy, and Thomson Thenard incorporated the most recent researches of his contemporaries. …The detailed index included in each volume makes Thenard's book a particularly useful reference for chemistry of its period." (D.S.B. 13: 309314). Bolton I. 867. Cole 1263. Neville II. 541. Edelstein 2242. $3,000.

First Edition of a Set of Large Chemical Tables for Laboratory Display 100. TROMMSDORFF, JOHANN B. (17701873). Darstellung der säuren, alkalien, erden und metalle; ihrer verbindungen zu salzen und ihrer wahlverwandschaften in zwölf tafeln. Erfurt: Henningsschen Buchhandlung, 1800. Trommsdorff "...was first apothecary and then professor of physics and chemistry in the University of Erfurt from 1795 till its dissolution in 1816. He also founded in 1796 a ChemicoPhysicalPharmaceutical Institute in Erfurt, which boarded the pupils and functioned for 33 years. Trommsdorff was a very highly esteemed man, well known in public life, becoming Director of the

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Academy of Applied Science at Erfurt." (Partington III, pp. 587589, does not mention these tables). "The systematic tables of Trommsdorff give his classification of chemical substances as acids, alkalies, metals and salts (three classes). Also the author presents, in words, tables of single and double elective attractions. Trommsdorff takes into account the works of Bergman, Kirwan, Klaproth, Scherer, Richter, Wenzel and others as well as the new French nomenclature." (Cole 1291). Like Fourcroy's contemporaneous chemical tables, these were intended for laboratory display and are, therefore, by their nature very scarce in sound, complete condition. Neville II. 566 "…important work…" Edelstein 2323. Ferchl, p. 543. Poggendorff II.1137. Bolton I. 79 Gotha, 1800 edition. Ferguson I. 473474, not noted. $2,000.

The Fruit of "…scouring the countryside for telltale bubbles" The Discovery of Methane

101. VOLTA, ALESSANDRO (17451827). Lettere… sull'aria infiammabile native delle paludi al Padre Carlo Giuseppe Campi C.R.S. (Milan: Giuseppe Marelli, 1776). Among the great rarities of eighteenth century chemical literature is Volta's initial report in two letters to his friend, Padre Campi, of his discovery of the gas methane. Only a handful of copies are known, the work is better known by the book with the same title (Milan, 1777) containing seven letters and extended to 147 pages. The two letters here are dated 14 and 21 November 1776 at Como. Stirring up the mud of Maggiore, Volta collected inflammable marsh gas that bubbled up into an inverted bottle filled with water. "His first pneumatic studies concerned 'inflammable air from marshes' (chiefly methane), which he discovered in November 1776 in Lago Maggiore. It was not a chance find. Inflammable air from metals (hydrogen released from acids) had been known since its isolation by Cavendish in 1776, and Franklin's description of natural source of inflammable air had just been published by Priestley in a book quickly known in Italy. In the autumn of 1776, Volta's friend P. Carlo Giuseppe Campi had found a natural source near Pavia; and Volta himself, intrigued by the 'ever more remarkable and interesting subject of the different kinds of air', scoured the countryside for telltale bubbles. The testing of his new gas new in source, flame color, and combustability led him into the faddish field of eudiometry." (D.S.B.). For an important Italian account see: G. Polvani, 'Alessandro Volta', Pisa, 1942, chap. 6, plate 55, and p. 419. Partington III. 814815 (1777 book and later editions only). Ronalds, p. 519. Not in Neville or the other published chemical collections. $16,500.

The Great Swedish Mineralogist's Last Book as an Academic 102. WALLERIUS, JOHAN (170985). Elementa metallurgiae speciatim chemicae. Stockholm: C. A. Afkergren, 1768. Wallerius' 1747 treatise on mineralogy "…was received as an outstanding handbook of contemporary knowledge; never before had such a wealth of minerals been presented so systematically." (D.S.B.). In 1750 he became the first professor of chemistry in Sweden at Uppsala. His responsibilities included also lecturing on metallurgy and pharmacy. In the mid1760's Wallerius' health was undermined by poor working conditions in the laboratory causing his early retirement in 1767. The following year his last book as an academic was published, his lecture on metallurgy of which he said "…(it) has cost me innumerable experiments and much trouble." Poggendorff II. 1252. Bolton I. 902. Smith Coll., p. 500. Not in Neville, Duveen, or Cole. $1,250.

The New Chemical Nomenclature 103. WHITE, ROBERT. An analysis of the new London pharmacopoeia, explaining the nature, principles, elective attractions, qualities, uses, and doses... Newmarket: W. Burrell, for T. Cadell, 1792. Bound with: A summary of the pneumatochemical theory with a table of its

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nomenclature, intended as a supplement to the Analysis of the new London pharmacopoeia. (London): Cadell and Davies, n.d. (1796). 'An Analysis' first appeared in 1792 at Newmarket and again four years later when the new chemical nomenclature had "...at this time generally (been) adopted..." (quotation from verso of title of 'A Summary'). 'A Summary' was "...principally intended as a Supplement to the Analysis...," i.e. to accompany the 1796 second edition of 'An Analysis'. Cole 1370 lists the two titles bound together in this way. The present copy, which shows definite signs that both works have long been together, has 'An Analysis' in the rare 1792 first edition, Cole 1369; here Cole notes that it is not in the N.U.C. or Supplement nor in any of the chemical collections. 'A Summary' on its own is Bolton I. 914, Duveen 618, Neu 4343, Ferchl 578 and Nat. Lib. Med. (18th C.), p. 488. The interesting table of nomenclature to 'A Summary' is adopted from James St. John's English translation of 'Méthode de nomenclature chimique' published in 1788 (see item 67 for the original French of 1787). Not in Neville. $1,500.

An English Chemistry at the End of the Seventeenth Century

104. WILSON, GEORGE (16311711). A compleat course of chymistry. Containing three hundred operations… Also, the structure of several furnaces… And such instruments and vessels as are necessary in a compleat elaboratory. London: printed, and sold at the Author's house… and by Walter Kettilby, 1699. The rare first edition of a successful chemistry text (5th ed. 1736) here with nine plates though several sources give eight only (Partington II. 760; Duveen, p. 622; Sotheran/Zeitlinger, vol.2, no. 15557). "Wilson dedicated this excellent chemical textbook to Lord Paston, who possessed an 'Exquisite Skill in whatever relates to Chymistry'… Part I (pp. 1193) deals with chemical processes and inorganic compounds. Part II (pp. 195288) covers vegetable materials, and Part III (pp. 289341) discusses animals and insects. Page 343 describes Wilson's courses (2.5 guineas), and pages 344358 list the preparations carried out during the April and September courses." (Neville II. 632 1700 ed.). A 1691 edition is mentioned by a number of sources, but as Neville, Wing, and OCLC indicate, it is a ghost. Not in Bolton, Ferguson, Smith, Edelstein, or Cole. Wing W2892. Thorndike VIII.166167. $3,600.

GENERAL SCIENCE

Important Letters on the Founding of the Lawrence Scientific School and the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard

105. AGASSIZ, LOUIS (180773); SAMUEL A. ELIOT (17981862); CHARLES W. ELIOT (18381926). Two A.L.S. from Louis Agassiz to Abbott Lawrence, and manuscript document signed by Charles W. Eliot evidently to the children of Abbott Lawrence. These concern the founding and funding of the Lawrence Scientific School and the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard, and the reorganization of the Lawrence Scientific School under Pres. Eliot's proposed 1871 plan. The lot includes an early autographed mounted photograph of Charles W. Eliot. (1). A.L.S. from Samuel A. Eliot, Harvard treasurer and father of Charles W. Eliot, to Abbott Lawrence, 4 3/4 pp., approx. 950 words, dated 24 Feb. 1853, with wax sealed handwritten envelope. Entreats Abbott Lawrence (17921853) businessman, philanthropist, and founder of

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Lawrence, Massachusetts, to help with the purchase of Louis Agassiz' collection and fulfilling Agassiz' desire for permanent support. Here are the seeds of the eventual solution, the Harvard's Museum of Comparative Zoology. "…I know you will readily agree, that he (Agassiz) should be induced to remain among us during the rest of his life. I am doing what I can to secure this result by obtaining a sufficient subscription to purchase his collection, & thus give him the means to making another." Eliot also gently asks for further support of the Lawrence Scientific School. Complimenting the efforts of Prof. Eustis in building his engineering Department, Eliot assesses the accomplishments of the school thus far. See: E. Lurie biography of Agassiz (1960/1988), p.190. (2). A.L.S. from Louis Agassiz to Abbott Lawrence, 1/2 page, dated 30 Aug. 1853. With wax sealed handwritten envelope. Overflowing letter of thanks for his support. "I shall for ever refer to you the foundation of this change in my existence." Agassiz refers here to a future "Museum". (3). A.L.S. from Louis Agassiz to Abbott Lawrence, 2 1/4 pp., approx. 800 words, dated 20 May 1853. An important and revealing letter in which he pleas for the establishment of a museum at Harvard. He informs Lawrence that he has been offered a professorship in the newly founded scientific school in Zurich with mention of the liberal endowment of a museum. He writes that his friends have appealed to his patriotism to accept. Emphatically Agassiz quotes and underlines the words of Prof. Heer on the offer, "…which would leave nothing to wish to the incumbent…" Here Agassiz recalls "…a vague plan of another building connected with the Sc. school… To compete with similar institutions abroad the Lawrence scientific school ought to be enlarged & endowed with a Museum & other appliances. I am ready to devote all my energies to it." Agassiz complains about his working conditions resulting in his being unable to publish the results of his investigations. He notes that he has himself paid out $3800 for the maintenance of the collections after they became the property of the University, yet his salary is only $1500. Agassiz writes of his constant efforts on behalf of improving the collections and continues with pledging his dedication to the goal of establishing a formal museum. Unfortunately Lawrence died the following year. Eventually a member of the Corporation prominent in the shipping business, Francis Calley Gray, provided $50,000, the legislature $100,000, and a public subscription $71,000 resulting in the founding of the Museum of Comparative Zoology in 1859. The draft of this letter, from which Edward Lurie ('Louis Agassiz a life in science', 1960/1988, pp. 193, 215) has twice quoted, is in the Houghton Library, Harvard. This revealing letter is also cited in C. Irmscher's 'Louis Agassiz creator of American science', 2013, pp. 111112. (4). A.L.S. from Charles W. Eliot to the children of Abbott Lawrence, 9 pp., approx. 1600 words, headed 'Confidential' and dated 23 March 1871. This frank and factual statement of the state of the Lawrence Scientific School penned by the new president of Harvard sets out his financial considerations, educational goals, and reorganization plans. "The presidency of Charles William Eliot played out on an epic scale like no other, from his recordsetting 40 years in office to his transformation of Harvard into a modern research university to his farreaching impact on U.S. higher education." (Harvard University web site). Eliot states his purpose in sending this detailed analysis of the School: "I have made this full statement of the present condition, wants and possibilities of the School because I have felt that the children of the founder of the School ought to know that it is dying, and why it is dying, and what may be done to save and reestablish it." Eliot's bold signature as President concludes the eighth page verso, the ninth continues with a summary entitled: "Schedule of the Instruction which the School would offer upon this plan." (5). Photograph of Charles W. Eliot as a formally dressed young man possibly taken at the time of his appointment as Assistant Professor of Mathematics and Chemistry at Harvard in 1858. "The Lawrence Scientific School was, down to 1871, the only department of the University in which advanced instruction in the physical and natural sciences was offered; and some of the great departments of science now established under other faculties had their origin, or first significant development, in that school." (Samuel E. Morison, 'The development of Harvard Univ.', 1930). Also published in 1930 was H. James' account of Charles W. Eliot as president of Harvard where note is made of Eliot's 186162 proposal for the 'Plan' of the Lawrence Scientific School' a radical recommendation ultimately not accepted by the faculty. Here (4) in 1871 we have significantly Eliot's confidential assessment of the School. $6,250.

Author's Copy 106. [AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES]. Memoirs of… Volume I. Boston: Adams and Nourse, 1785.

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Of important provenance, this first volume of the first scientific journal published in New England comes from the library of the third Hollis Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at Harvard, Samuel Williams (17431817). A cofounder of the academy and a member of its Council, Williams contributed four papers to its proudly produced first volume. His paper entitled, "Astronomical observations, made in the State of Massachusetts" (pp. 81123 and plate I) is well known for the description and illustration of Baily's beads observed during a Penobscot Bay solar eclipse over 50 years in advance of Francis Baily's published account in 1836. This volume came to us from the estate of Williams' descendent, the late Frank Williams Oliver, Esq., (19202006), the greatgreatgrandson of Samuel Williams. Oliver inherited family books and manuscripts going back to Warham and John Williams (on this notable American family see R.F. Rothschild, 'Two Brides for Apollo the life of Samuel Williams', 2009). Laid in is Oliver's characteristic typed cataloguing of this book, and a bookmark manuscript account fragment dated 1785 with Williams' name on verso. $1,200.

Presentation Copy from the Author to His Son, the Editor of the Posthumous Second Volume

107. AMPÉRE, ANDRÉMARIE (17751836). Essai sur la philosophie des sciences, ou exposition analytique d'une classification naturelle de toutes le connaissances humaines. Paris: Bachelier, 1834. Ampére, pioneer of electrodynamics, culminated his life's work with a classification of all the sciences, "…and by a process of subdivision, reached a total of 128 sciences and subsciences including one he called 'Cybernetics'." (B. Dibner, 'Ten founding fathers of electrical science', (1954). The D.S.B. has a detailed discussion of this work as does J. E. Hofmann's biography of Ampére (1995), chapter 10. From the biography: "Ampére's last major composition was published in two volumes, the first by Ampére himself in 1834, and the second posthumously in 1843 under the supervision of his son. The 'Essai' represents the culmination of Ampére's abiding conviction about the holistic nature of human knowledge. It is unique in that it represents the only case in which Ampére managed to organize his philosophical views into a publishable format. …Based upon the manuscripts Ampére had amassed by the time of his death, the second volume of the 'Essai' was published by JeanJacques Ampére in 1843." $4,500.

"…it is now a rare book" Fulton

107a. [BOYLE, ROBERT (162791)]. Some considerations touching the usefulnesse of experimental naturall philosophy. Oxford: Hen. Hall for Ric. Davis, 1663. Fulton 50: "A long and detailed work, being put into type in London and Oxford by the same printer… The first edition was probably very small, as it is now a rare book (written in 1930). Both issues of the second edition are common… The work as a whole shows a most surprising knowledge of natural history, medicine, physics, and chemistry, in many respects far in advance of his age, and is of special importance for its comments on medicine. For example, in discussing of the usefulness of natural philosophy to medicine (Part II, see p. 117), the 'Physiological, Pathological, Semiotical, the Hygienical, and the Therapeutical'. He then systematically describes each of the five divisions of medical knowledge." Neville I. 210 2nd edition (1664). $4,500.

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An Important Presentation Copy

108. HUTTON, CHARLES (17371823). A philosophical and mathematical dictionary… A new edition, with numerous Additions and improvements. London: for the Author, 1815. Charles Hutton, professor of mathematics at the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich, was elected F.R.S. in 1774. His large mathematical dictionary first appeared in 179596 and "…is probably the best known of Hutton's works. …the dictionary has served as a valuable source for historians of mathematics." (D.S.B.). "…a splendid monument of late eighteenthcentury Newtonianism and a most useful source, also sets out the kinetic theory of heat, that is the effect of motion of particles." (D. Knight, 'Natural Science Books in English', 1972, p. 154). "…a valuable contribution to scientific biography…" (Encyclo. Brit., 13th ed.). This second edition adds four plates and a portrait of Hutton. Plate 14 is a fullpage engraving of Herschel's telescope. $2,500.

Revealing the Truths of Science by a Demonstrative Logic 109. S., J. (SERGEANT, JOHN) (16221707). The method of science. London: W. Redmayne for the Author, 1696. An interesting, early, and scarce treatise on method in science by the Roman Catholic convert and controversialist, John Sergeant. His writings during an active 40 year period engaged all the major Protestants, especially Dr. Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester, his greatest and most frequent adversary. The violent reaction to Sergeant’s writings caused him to publish under assumed names or cryptically, with initials only. His approach here is one of applying logical structure, ‘a demonstrative logick’, to the pursuit of improving science. His method puts aside (with all due respect) the philosophy of Descartes, and the approach of the experimentalist, like Boyle, for his application of logic. "In a word, ‘tis Connexion of Terms which I onely esteem as Proper to advance Science. Where I find not such Connexion, and the Discours grounded on Selfevident Principles, or (which is the same) on the Metaphysical Verity of the Subject, which engages the Nature of the Thing, I neither expect Science can by gain’d, nor the Method to Science Establish’d." (Preface). Wing S2579. N.L.M. (17th C.), no. 11023. $1,400.

GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY

"…the first important mineralogical text published in the United States" D.S.B. 110. CLEAVELAND, PARKER (17801858). An elementary treatise on mineralogy and geology. Boston: Cummings and Hilliard, 1816.

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Parker Cleaveland's large treatise of 1816 on mineralogy "…was easily the best book on the subject in the country and one of the best in the English language. He made a thorough job of it, basing it mainly on the French system of Brongniart and Haüy, and attracted the sympathetic attention not only of his colleagues in America, but also of scientists abroad, primarily because of its information on American sites of minerals…" (D. J. Struik, 'The origins of Amer. sci.', 1957). "A review in the 'American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review', possibly written by Samuel Latham Mitchell and signed 'K', praised Cleaveland's book as 'auspicious of the advancement of the physical sciences in the United States'… (He has rendered the subject more scientific, by uniting the chemical method with those of Haüy and others… The descriptive mineralogy of Professor Cleaveland is very good." (J.C. Greene & J. G. Burke, 'The science of minerals in the age of Jefferson', 1978 which includes on pp. 8090 a detailed account of Cleaveland's book.). G. P. Merrill, 'The first one hundred years of Amer. geology', 1924, pp. 4146). Geology Emerging 487. Hazen 2420. Rink 775. $2,000.

"One of the most significant contributions to American mineralogy and the science as a whole…"

110a. DANA, JAMES DWIGHT (181395). A system of mineralogy: including an extended treatise on crystallography. New Haven: Durrie & Peck and Herrich & Noyes, 1837. Dana's first book is "Very scarce. One of the most significant contributions to American mineralogy and the science as a whole was made when Dana, at the youthful age of 24 published his 'System of Mineralogy'… The text is a very complete and readable compendium of all mineralogical data available at that time." (C. Schuh, 'Mineralogy and crystallography: a biobibliography, 14691920', no. 1207). Dana's worldwide reputation was cemented with his participation as geologist and mineralogist on the Wilkes Expedition, 183842. With the departure of Couthouy, Dana also took on responsibility for marine zoology. Hoover Coll., no. 247. Geology Emerging 586. $1,900.

"…marks the beginning of crystallography in the modern sense" 111. HAÜY, RENEJUST (17431822). Tableau comparative des résultats de la cristallographie et de l'analyse chimique. Paris: Courcier, 1809. "An important work in the history of the development of chemical crystallography, in which Haüy correlates the crystal habit of minerals with their chemical analysis. …represents a great advance in the author's thinking… This work on crystals marks the beginning of crystallography in the modern sense." (Neville Lib. I. 602603). Smith Coll., p. 223. D.S.B. 6: 1816. Geology Emerging 1025. $1,100. 112. LAMÉTHERIE, JEANCLAUDE (17431817). Théorie de la terre. Paris: Maradan, An III / 1795. “Taking a broad cosmogonical view of creation, LaMétherie regarded the major features of the earth as the result of the combined action of crystallization, moving water, and shifts in the planetarymotion characteristics of the earth. Major alterations in the crust, he believed, had not occurred since the main valleys and mountains were created by the primordial crystallization process. Mountain upheavals, violent floods, and other agents of change were generally rare and isolated events.” (D.S.B.). Within two years a second edition appeared. Zittel, 'Hist. geology & palaeontology', 1901, pp. 7778. Geology Emerging 1318. ‘Theories of the Earth 16441830’ (Linda Hall Lib., 1984), no. 90 German trans., 179798. Wheatland, p.132. $1,000.

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Eighteenth Century Italian Mineral and Fossil Collection 113. MARCELLINI, SILVESTRO (b. 1741). Trattato compendioso orittologico. Camerino: T. Goriani, 1801. A very scarce title of chemical, mineral, and geological interest by the Italian collector, Silvestro Marcellini. He describes the fossil, mineral, and gem specimens with considerable attention to their chemical composition. Marcellini's interest in the subject began in 1785 with the opening of a pyrite mine near Fabriano which produced a wide variety of fossils and minerals. Despite the chemical content of Marcellini's treatise, it is not found in any of the usual chemical bibliographies and collections except Neville (II. 138). It is not in Poggendorff, Sinkankas, or the Hoover Collection. Geology Emerging 1496. $1,300.

The First English Book on Its Subject 114. NICOLS, THOMAS. A lapidary: or, the history of precious stones. Cambridge: Thomas Buck, 1652. "The first English book on precious stones and their classification, of chemical interest. It is also a significant work in the development of mineralogy…" (Neville II. 230). Nicols, of Jesus College, Cambridge, relied on Aselmus Boetius de Boodt's 1609 lapidary whom he "...frequently quotes and adopts his system of classification, as well as agrees with him that gems do not possess occult powers. Marking the first steps toward a more scientific approach to geology and mineralogy, the book contains interesting comments on amber, jet, and the magnetic properties of lodestones." (Neville). W. E. Wilson (ed.), 'Mineral books', 1995, pp. 3738 with facsimile of 1652 title page. Sinkankas 4754. Hoover 610. Adams, pp. 16364. Partington II. 103. Wheeler Gift Cat. 136. $3,900.

Complete First Edition Set of Shepard's Early American Mineralogy 115. SHEPARD, CHARLES UPHAM (180486). Treatise on mineralogy. New Haven: H. Howe, 1832. Bound with Treatise on mineralogy: second part, in two volumes, volume I (II). New Haven: H. Howe, 1835. Charles U. Shepard, a graduate in 1824 of the newly founded Amherst College, studied with Thomas Nuttall for a year and then became Silliman's assistant in 1827 continuing until 1831. In 1830, Shepard was appointed to a lectureship in natural history at Yale which held to 1847. Late in 1844, Shepard became professor of chemistry and natural history at Amherst. His major work was 'Treatise on mineralogy' (183235). Shepard's collection of minerals was reported to have been the largest in America at the time of his death, this despite the fact that his first collection was destroyed in an Amherst fire in 1882. In his obituary in the Charleston News it was written: "Prof. Shepard discovered more new species of minerals which have attained permanent recognition than perhaps any other scientist of the present day." This book was important in promoting mineralogy in America, see W. E. Wilson (ed.), 'Mineral Books', 1995, p. 63. Very uncommon with the three volumes in first edition and contemporaneously bound together. Roller & Goodman II. 429 separate entries for the 1832 and the two 1835 volumes. $975. 115a. SNOW CRYSTALS,

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The Origin of Fossils and the Forms and Manner of Crystals

"…an entirely new scientific approach to nature, one that opened up the dimension of time" 116. STENO, NICOLAUS (163887). De solido intra solidum naturaliter contento dissertationis prodromus. Florence: Typographia sub signo Stellae, 1669. "In 'A Dissertation concerning a Solid Body' (Steno) described the composition of the earth's crust in Tuscany and a famous diagram in his book shows six successive types of stratification: the first attempt ever made to represent geological sections. This was a sequence which he believed would be found all over the world. He explained the true origin of fossils found in the earth as being remains of once living things, and he discriminated between the volcanic, chemical and mechanical modes of the origin of the rocks. He was the first clearly to recognize that the strata of the earth's crust contain the records of a chronological sequence of events from which the history of the earth can be reconstructed. He attempted to find the principles of stratigraphy. …his book marks a great advance in geology and it cleared the path for the modern sciences of palaeontology and geology as they were gradually established by Leibniz, Lamarck, and particularly by James Hutton. Steno also made important and original observations on the forms and manner of crystals…" (PMM 151). Beyond Steno's formidable achievements on a new and correct theory of fossils and interpretation of rock strata, his accomplishment "…was that he drew up a blueprint for an entirely new scientific approach to nature, one that opened up the dimension of time. As Steno wrote, 'from that which is perceived a definite conclusion may be drawn about what is imperceptible.' From the present world one can deduce vanished worlds." (A. Cutler, 'The seashell on the mountaintop', N.Y., 2003). Grolier/Science 100, no. 96. Heralds of Science 90. Milestones of Science 185. Epochal Achievements 63. H. F. Norman Lib. Cat., no. 2013. Parkinson, 'Breakthroughs', pp. 108109 with four citations for this book. $25,000. 116a. WALLERIUS, JOHANS G. (170985). Tankar om verldenes, i synnerhet: H. Fougt, 1776. In 'Thoughts on the creation and change of the world, particularly of the earth', the Swedish chemist and mineralogist, J. G. Wallerius, presented his theory of the origins of the earth. Though Wallerius cites many important contributors to this subject (e.g. Hooke, Burnett, Whiston, Sturm, Leibniz), "…he assigned the highest authority to the biblical account of the history of creation." (D.S.B.). Geology Emerging 2286. Poggendorff II.1252. $750.

Early Theory of Geological Strata and Fossils 117. WOODWARD, JOHN (16651728). An essay toward a natural history of the earth: and terrestrial bodies, especially minerals… London: Ric. Wilkin, 1695. An important book in the development of a theory of the earth by the professor of physic at Gresham College in London (from 1692) and F.R.S. (1693), John Woodward. "Woodward's 'Essay' was valuable in its time for its methodology (combining firsthand observation with a unified method of obtaining information from distant sources), its strong argument in favor of the organic origin of fossils, and its stimulation of interest in geological matters." (H.F. Norman Lib. Cat. 2262). "…most notable work, and still worthy of perusal, 'An Essay…', 1695, in which he recognizes strata and fossils representing past life but deposited according to relative specific gravities after the destruction of the Great Deluge." (Sinkankas, vol. 2, p. 1140). D.S.B. 14: 500503. M. Rudwick, 'Meaning of fossils', 1976, pp. 8284. Faul & Faul, p. 56. Hoover Coll. 896. Zittel, pp. 2930. Geology Emerging 2359. $2,500.

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LIFE SCIENCES

Large Collection of Surgical and Medical Prize Essays A Very Fine Eight Volume Set

118. [ACADÉMIE ROYALE DE CHIRURGIE, PARIS.]. Recueil des pieces qui ont concouru pour le prix de l’Académie Royale de Chirurgie. Paris: Delaguette; P. Al. Le Prieur, 175259. The Royal Academy of Surgery in Paris beginning in 1732 proposed questions for its gold medal prize and gathered the winning essays in these eight wellproduced volumes. The authors represented are Le Cat, Medalon, Bassius, Faure, La Sone, Alary, Kulbel, Hugon, Mopillier, Grassot, Guyot, Louis, Grashu, Eschenbac, Charmetton, Nannoni, Flurant, Goursaud, Bordeu, Majaut, De La Bissiere and Grillon. The 1752 date, which clearly appears in Roman numerals in volume six of this set, may be a printer's error and should be 1757. The N.L.M. (18th C.) printed catalog has of the duodecimo edition an incomplete first edition set and a later mixed set. OCLC notes only one set at the N.L.M. Not in Wellcome, Waller, Blocker Collection, Heirs of Hippocrates, Pybus, or Cole. $1,800.

Presentation Copy 119. AMUSSAT, A. A. (182078). Memoires sur la galvanocaustique thermique. Paris: Germer Bailliére, 1876. "…a short work in which he gave an account of the history of the introduction of the electrocautery and described the cautery loop or galvanic 'écraseur' and the cases for which he used it." (Rowbottom & Susskind). Bakken, p. 128. $750.

Monumental Four Volume Treatise on Surgery with Masterful Illustrations 120. BELL, JOHN (17631820). The principles of surgery. London: Longman, 1815. Charles Bell's elder brother, John, was Scotland's premier teacher of surgical anatomy, a field he made major contributions to. "His monumental 'Principles of surgery' presented 'not only the surgical knowledge of the period, but also a scholarly, historical review of the treatment of the conditions dealt with, together with a wealth of clinical description and shrewd comment…' (Wallis, 'Medical history', 8, 1964). The work is particularly remarkable for its illustrations, which display Bell's considerable artistic talents." (H. F. Norman Lib. 177, 1st ed.). GM 5581 (1st ed.). Wellcome II. 138. $3,200. 121. BERTHELON, PIERRE (17421800). De l'électricité du corps humain dans l'etat de santé et de maladie. Paris: Croulbois, 1786.

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The first edition of 1780, an unillustrated duodecimo volume of 541 pages, was enlarged for the 1786 second edition into two octavo volumes with six fine plates. Berthelon believed that human and animal bodies possess a spontaneous or animal electricity. The ebb and flow of electrical charge through the pores depended on the electrical state of the atmosphere. Prolonged excess or deficiency led to certain disease states, and whether due to excess or deficient amounts of electric fluid, treatment with negative or positive electricity was called for. Marat strongly attacked Berthelon's theories and experimental technique, while others considered them fanciful. Wheeler Gift Cat. 533. Ronalds, p. 54. Gartrell 54. Bakken, p. 43. Rowbottom & Susskind, p. 25. Licht 82. $875.

Including a Section on the Chemical Properties of Light 122. BERTRAND, MICHEL (17741857). Essai touchant l'influence de la lumiére sur les étres organisés, sur l'atmosphere, et sur différens composes chimiques. Paris: Hy, An VIII (1798). A rare book of essays of medical and chemical interest presented to the faculty of l'Ecole de Médecine de Paris by Michel Bertrand. Considered are the actions of light on vision, on the animal economy, on vegetation, and on the atmosphere, with a final section on the chemical properties of light. Later in his career Bertrand published on the properties of the thermal waters of Montd' Or. The present book is lacking from the N.L.M. Cat., Wellcome, Waller and the usual chemical sources and collections. Neville I.142. $750. 122a. BORELLI, GIOVANNI A. (160879). De motu animalium. Leyden: Boutesteyn, Gaesbeeck, Vivie & Vander Aa, 1685. Bound with:De vi percussionis. Leyden: Vander Aa, 1686. Bound with: De motionibus naturalibus, a gravitate pendentibus. Leyden: Vander Aa, 1686.

Boyle on Medicine

122b. BOYLE, ROBERT (162991). Of the reconcileableness of specifick medicines to the corpuscular philosophy. London: Sam. Smith, 1685. "The 'Specific Medicines', a rare and little known tract of Boyle, entitles him to a place among the principal contributors to medical science in the seventeenth century. In it he examines the scientific and philosophical basis of a 'specific' remedy and reveals a rather surprising insight into the nature of a great variety of common diseases, e.g. nephritis, the failing heart, gangrene, etc." (Fulton 166). Cushing B589. Osler 949. Waller 1391. Wellcome II. 224. N.L.M. (17th C.), no. 1717. $3,000.

Neural Control of Animal Heat Presentation Copies 123. BRODIE, BENJAMIN C. (17831862). Experiments and observations on the different modes in which death is produced by certain vegetable poisons. London: printed by W. Bulmer, 1811. Offered with: Further experiments and observations on the action of poisons on the animal system. London: printed by W. Bulmer, 1812. Offered here in presentation copies are the last two, of six, important papers (his best known physiological research) that Brodie published in the 'Philosophical Transactions' presenting

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many experimental results which seriously "...challenged the whole chemical theory of animal heat, with respiration (and, by implication, combustion) as the actual source of heat production. The results were indisputable. He destroyed the animal's brain by pithing, decapitation, or poisoning (the present two papers), yet maintained respiration and heartbeat artificially... If respiratory changes were the immediate cause of heat in animals, then the temperature of the animals should be maintained. This did not occur. Moreover, Brodie inactivated the higher cerebral centers by poisoning, then gradually allowed the animal to recover, as the 'sensibility' was recovered so was the power of generating heat..." (D.S.B.). Though Brodie did not advance any new theories to account for these results, eventually it was shown that animal heat production and maintenance are controlled by nervous centers, and over sixty years later, Claude Bernard was quoting Brodie in his work on the subject. Rothschuh, 'Hist. physiol.', 1973, pp.18485, citing these papers. $750.

Foundation Work of Paleobotany 124. BRONGNIART, ADOLPHE (180176). Prodrome d'une histoire des végétaux fossils. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1828. "In 1822 Brongniart published his first important memoir, on the classification and distribution of fossil plants. In it he conceived of paleobotany as a part of botany and gave it a theoretical value of prime importance for biology as well as for geology. …The masterworks of 1828, 'the 'Prodrome' and the 'Histoire des végétaux fossiles', mainly confirmed and extended his early ideas, giving them foundation and breadth of perspective. The 'Histoire'… was a long, methodical, detailed, and precise study… Its general principles and theoretical views were expressed in condensed form in the 'Prodrome', to striking effect. In it Brongniart recognized the existence of four successive periods of vegetation, each characterized geologically. …Brongniart then divided the vegetable kingdom into six classes… This excellent classification clearly indicated modern views…"(D.S.B.). 'En Francais dans le text', no. 241. Heralds of Science 95 'Histoire', not noting 'Prodrome'. Pritzel 1171. Zittel, pp. 368369. Geology Emerging 329. M.J.S. Rudwick, 'The meaning of fossils', 1985, pp. 146149, 162. Bound with: Brongniart. Essai d'une classification des champignons. Paris, 1825. $1,750. 124a. CARPUE, JOSEPH C. (17641846). An introduction to electricity and galvanism; with cases, shewing their effects in the cure of diseases: to which is added, a description of Mr. Cuthbertson’s plate electrical machine. London: A. Phillips..., 1803.

Georges Cuvier’s First Book 125. CUVIER, GEORGES (17691832). Tableau élémentaire de l’histoire naturelle des animaux. Paris: Baudouin, An 6 (1798). The French naturalist and founder of vertebrate palaeontology, Georges Cuvier, published his first separate work in 1798. With this publication he established the science of comparative anatomy. The text is based on a course of lectures he delivered two years earlier at the l’École du Pantheon, and is important for containing Cuvier’s first general statement of his natural classification of the animal kingdom. His 'magnum opus' on the subject appeared nineteen years later in four volumes, 'Le regne animal' (see next item). Milestones of Science 44. Cole Lib. II. 70. Wood, p. 307. N.L.M. (18th C.), p. 170. Waller 11798. See: Heralds of Science 195 and PMM 276. $1,300.

"…the greatest body of zoological facts that had yet been assembled" 126. CUVIER, GEORGES (17691832). Le régne animal distribué d'aprés son organisation. Paris: Deterville, 1817.

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PMM 276. "The most influential exposition of the typological approach to animal classification, representing the greatest body of zoological facts that had yet been assembled; it served as the standard zoological manual for most of Europe during the first half of the nineteenth century. Using the taxonomic system that he had introduced in 1812..., Cuvier divided the animal kingdom into four main types or 'embranchements': Vertebrata, Mollusca, Articulata and Radiata, each with its own subgroups. This represented an attempt at a 'natural' classification system, based upon the assumption that the characteristic interrelationship between an animal's function and structure placed it within an exclusive group (i.e., that species were 'real'), as opposed to the more artificial systems of the past..." (H. F. Norman Lib. Cat. 567, also the headline quotation). In volume four is found on pp. 95 to 170 'Table alphabétique des auteurs cités', an annotated bibliography of zoological literature. D.S.B. 3: 521528. Heralds of Science 195. Milestones of Science 42. Wood, p. 307. GM 327 (3rd ed.). $2,500.

The Great Darwin Book First Issue of the First American Edition 127. DARWIN, CHARLES (180982). On the origin of species by means of natural selection. New York: D. Appleton, 1860. The first issue of the first American edition "…of the most important biological book ever written…" (Freeman). The official publication date of the Murray edition was November 24, 1859, while the Appleton edition appeared in the middle of January, 1860. "By observing the special biology and geology of isolated islands during the cruise of the 'Beagle', Darwin's reflective mind saw, in the struggle for existence, that favourable variations would tend to help survival, with the resulting formation of new species. Fossil remains and the extinction of species, such as the dodo and solitaire birds, further supported such a position. This, the most important single work in science, brought man to his true place in nature." (Heralds of Science 199 citing first edition). Freeman 377 & p.83. $8,500.

The Discoverer of Osmosis 128. DUTROCHET, R.J.H. (17761847). Mémoirs pour servir a l'histoire anatomique et physiologique des végétaux et des animaux. Paris: J.B. Bailliére, 1837. As pointed out by Julius Sachs, and more recently by A.G. Morton, in their histories of botany, Dutrochet’s influence on the subject through his publications was of paramount importance for the period 1804 to 1840. This treatise represents "the final results of Dutrochet's thirty years of research into plant and animal physiology, replacing a series of earlier papers that he considered 'null and void'. Dutrochet's most important contribution was the discovery of osmosis, to which he gave its name; he was the first to investigate the phenomenon systematically, and to recognize its fundamental significance in living organisms. ...He recognized that only plant cells containing green matter were capable of absorbing carbon dioxide, and was the first to detect the production of heat in both a plant and an insect muscle during activity." (H. F. Norman Lib. Cat. 673). Of some importance in considering the significance of this publication is Dutrochet's own statement in the introduction that his memoir on osmosis, with which the collection starts, was entirely reworked for publication here. GM 110. Pritzel 2566. Blocker Coll., p.119. Cole Lib. II. 92. Wellcome II. 506 atlas only. $1,100.

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Nobel Prize in 1967 129. EIGEN, MANFRED (b. 1927). Selforganization of matter and the evolution of biological macromolecules. Göttingen: MaxPlanckInstitut für Biophysikalische Chemie, 1971. Offered with: Stufen zum leben. München and Zürich: Piper, 1978. Offered with: Perspektiven der wissenschaft. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags Anstalt, 1988. Offered with: Steps towards life a perspective on evolution. With Ruthild Winkler Ostwartit*ch. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992. Manfred Eigen shared the 1967 Nobel Prize in chemistry for the investigation of rapid chemical reactions by means of very short pulses of energy. In more recent research, Eigen has been a pioneer in research on self organizing systems and the origin of life. $875.

Insight into a Beloved Natural Science Writer An Essay from His Youth 130. [Typescript, Signed]. EISELEY, LOREN C. (190777). A compilation of some of the more outstanding theories dealing with the origin of life. (Lincoln, NE, c. 192527). "A short while ago, I peered through a microscope at a minute dot of grey; shapeless and yet moving, or rather flowing over the field of vision. It was one of many, clustering toward the light in the aquarium by the window. Sightless, without brain, hardly more than bits of primeval slime with a few chemical changes taking place in them, they were nevertheless imbued with the unrest of life. Compelled by unguessably dim impulses chemical affinity call it what one will they crawled and yearned toward a light they could not see." (First paragraph of typescript). Already one hears the voice of the later Eiseley, master of natural science writing and bestselling author. Eiseley, who rose to Benjamin Franklin Professor of Anthropology and History of Science and curator of the Early Man section at the University Museum at the University of Pennsylvania, was (and is) well known to the reading public for his many engaging books on natural science and evolution. Here in this early college essay, Eiseley reviews the theories on the origin of life for his Geology 105 class. This course is still given at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln and entitled, 'Life of the past'. The essay, though undated, falls in the 1925 to 1927 period as determined by internal evidence [J. Loeb is noted as 'late' (d. 1924); E. R. Lankester (d. 1929) and Arrhenius (d. 1927) are noted as still living. Eiseley entered the University of Nebraska in 1925 and dropped out in 1929 due to illness (TB). He resumed his studies in 1930 and graduated with a B.S. in June 1933. While an undergraduate, Eiseley wrote for the 'Prairie Schooner' and eventually became its editor. Concerning his personal papers, they were "incinerated" shortly after his death as he wished. It is likely that few survive outside of archives at the University of Pennsylvania and the Loren Eiseley Conference Room which contains his library and a collection of his books. Offered here is perhaps the earliest of his essays to survive. (On this, and for background see, E. F. Carlisle, 'Loren Eiseley the development of a writer', 1983). Eiseley published his first book

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'Immense Journey' in 1957. Further background, K. Heuer (ed.), 'The lost notebooks of Loren Eiseley', 1987 and G. E. Christianson, 'Fox at the wood's edge a biography of Loren Eiseley', 1990. $1,900.

Massive and Important Early Botany of the South Published in Charleston, South Carolina 131. ELLIOTT, STEPHEN (17711830). A sketch of the botany of SouthCarolina and Georgia. Charleston, S.C.: J.R. Schenck, 18211824. Born in Beaufort, South Carolina, Stephen Elliott spent the early part of the 19th century there engaged in his studies for his chief botanical work published in two thick volumes at Charleston in 1821 and 1824 (the parts began to be issued in 1816). He received his A.B. from Yale College in 1791. Under arduous circ*mstances, Elliott managed to add 180 genera and 1,000 species to those listed in Thomas Walker's pioneering 'Flora Caroliniana' (London, 1788). He extended his gratitude to many fellow botanists (especially Henry Muhlenberg to whom he glowingly dedicated his 'Sketch') whose work he relied on or who acted as his correspondent. Correa da Serra considered Elliott the ablest botanist in the United States and Hooker praised his 'Sketch'. Elliott's botany "...also included number of botanical discoveries of W. Baldwin that might have been lost to view for many years because of Baldwin's early death." (Biog. Dict. Amer. Sci.). "Elliott is commemorated by the beautiful flowering shrub 'Elliottia', and various species such as 'Carex Elliottii', 'Juncus Elliottii', 'Solidago Elliottii', 'Aster Elliottii'. The Elliott Society of Natural History, of Charleston, established in 1853, was named for him." (Kelly & Burrage). A facsimile reprint of this important and rare botany was published in 1971. John C. Greene, 'American Science in the Age of Jefferson', 1984, p.112. Pritzel 2664. $3,500.

Contribution to the Spontaneous Generation Controversy 132. FELIX, ANTONIUS [Antonio Felice Marsilli (16491710]. De ovis cochlearum epistola ad Marcellum Malphigi… Cum Joh. Jacobi Harderi… Epistolis aliquor, De partribus genitalibus cochlearum, generatione item infectorum ex ovo… D. Lucam Schröckum. Augsburg: T. Goebel, 1684. The archdeacon of Bologna, Felice Marsilli, in 1683 addressed to Malpighi his report of the discovery of the snail egg as a contribution to the spontaneous generation controversy current at the time. It immediately was taken up in European circles. Malpighi sent a copy to the Royal Society (they included it in their 1687 Malpighi 'Opera omnia'), and in the following year (1684) it was published in Latin with engraved plates. D.S.B. 2: 591b. NLM (17th C.), no. 3982. Manchester Univ. Lib. Med. Books 814. Cole Lib. I. 1002. Not in Wellcome. $875.

With a 'Quiet' Reminder to Charles Darwin 133. GEOFFROY, ST.HILAIRE, ISIDORE (180561). Résumé des vues sur l'espéce organique emises par les principaux naturalistes Francais. Paris: V. Masson, 1859. Isidore Geoffroy SaintHilaire's "…important views on the persistence of infantile characteristics among primates and on 'parallel' evolution appear to be original. …In 1859 he published 'Résumé des vues sur l'espéce organique', in which he quietly reminded Darwin of his predecessors in France: Buffon, Lamarck, and Étienne Geoffroy SaintHilaire." (D.S.B.). $800.

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134. GOETHE, JOHANN W. VON (17491832). Versuch die metamorphose der pflanzen zu erklären. Gotha: C.W. Ettinger, 1790. "This botanical research amid the lush Italian vegetation, as well as at home in the harsher German climate, resulted in a modest book first published in 1790 with the rather cautious title of Attempt to Explain the Metamorphosis of Plants. This work, whose size belies its significance, marked a turning point in Goethe’s own intellectual life, and, in the words of historian Robert J. Richards, "seeded a revolution in thought that would transform biological science during the nineteenth century." ('The Metamorphosis of Plants by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Introduction and photography by Gordon L. Miller', 2009). "Goethe argued that all plants derive from a 'supersenuous archetypal plant' or Upflanze, and that individual genera were modification of this ideal plant type. …Goethe's concept of the ideal type gradually evolved into the concept of a common ancestor from which different species develop over time…" (H. F. Norman Lib. Cat. 913). D.S.B. 5: 442446. Milestones of Science 86. $1,850.

Graaf's Early Experiments on the Pancreatic Juice 135. GRAAF, REGNER DE (164173). Tractatus anatomicomedicus de succi pancretici natura & usu. Leiden: Ex Officina Hackiana, 1671. Graaf's classic and very rare treatise on the pancreas first appeared at Leiden in 1664 (GM 974). "He collected the pancreatic juice of dogs by means of artificial pancreatic fistulae, commenting on the small quantity of juice secreted and on its alkaline character." (GM). This enlarged second edition includes a letter (pp. 209216) dated 30 May 1671 from Graaf to Luca Schacht on the reproductive system. Heirs of Hippocrates 636, with facsimile of the fine engraved title. Waller 3678. Wellcome III. 142. Cushing G348. $1,400.

First Description of Ovarian Follicles and the Corpus Luteum 136. GRAAF, REGNER DE (164173). De mulierum organis generationi inservientibus tractatus novus. Leiden: Ex officina Hackiana, 1672. The Dutch anatomist and physiologist, Graaf, "…demonstrated ovulation anatomically, pathologically, and experimentally. He opposed the Aristotelian doctrine of the egg being formed in the uterus as a result of activation of the menstrual blood by the male sem*n, but held that generation takes place from the ovum preexistent in the ovary. He herein gives the first description of ovarian (Graafian) follicles and the corpus luteum. His was an advanced and accurate understanding of the anatomy of the female genitalia." (Heirs of Hippocrates 638 facsimiles of the portrait and the female genitalia with major blood vessels). GM 1209. Cushing G344. H. F. Norman Lib. Cat. 926. $2,500.

Chlorine as an Effective Disinfectant Agent 137. GUYTON DE MORVEAU, LOUIS B. (17371816). Traité des moyens de désinfecter l'air, de prévenir la contagion. Paris: Bernard, An IX 1801. "A classic book in the history of chemistry and hygiene, in which the use of gaseous chlorine to fumigate churches and hospitals to destroy contagion and disease is first described. …this book was the most influential on the subject, and he is credited with the introduction of chlorine as an effective disinfectant." (Neville I. 562). Partington III. 52930. Cole 573. $750.

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Key Treatises on Plant Nutrition and Blood Pressure The Set of Matthew Boulton 138. HALES, STEPHEN (16771761). Statical essays: containing vegetable staticks; or, an account of some statical experiments on the sap in vegetables. London: W. Innys, T. Woodward and J. Peele, 1731. With: Statical essays: containing haemastaticks; or, an account of some hydraulick and hydrostatical experiments made on the blood and bloodvessels of animals. …To which is added, An appendix, containing observations and experiments relating to several subjects in the first volume. …With an Index to both volumes. London: W. Innys and R. Manby, and T. Woodward, 1733. Sir Francis Darwin has written: "In first opening the way to a correct appreciation of blood pressure, Hales' work may rank second in importance to Harvey's founding the modern science of physiology." In the Haemastaticks "…is recorded Hales' invention of the manometer, with which he was the first to measure bloodpressure…" (GM 765). In the 'Vegetable Staticks', which first appeared in 1727, Hales gave "the first compete account of the physiology of plants, including the reaction with air and movement of the sap." (Grolier/Science One Hundred, 45a). PMM 189 a & b. Heralds of Science 26. Milestones of Science 91. Grolier/Science One Hundred 45b and their Medicine One Hundred 41. Lilly Notable Medical Books, p. 109. Neville I. 576 & 578. $7,500.

"The First Systematic Elaboration of an Association Theory of Mind and Brain" 'Dictionary of the History of Ideas'

139. HARTLEY, DAVID. Observations on man, his frame, his duty, and his expectations. London: J. Leake & W. Frederick, 1749. "In the century following the publication of Hartley's 'Observations', the work came to be seen as the fountainhead of some of the most important ideas in biological, psychological, and social thought. Viewed in a narrow perspective, it was the first published work in English to use the term 'psychology' in its modern sense. …His speculations about the physiology of the nervous system laid the foundations for the dominant sensorymotor interpretation of neurophysiology and the experimental localization of functions in the cerebral cortex. …His book is the central document in the history of attempts to apply the categories of science, both directly and by analogy, to the study of man and society." (D.S.B.). 'Mind and Body', no. 29. Stigler, 'Statistics on the Table', chap. 15. H. L. Norman Lib. Cat. 1003. $2,750.

Galen Overturned: The Great Classic on Circulation of the Blood in English 139a. HARVEY, WILLIAM (15781657). The anatomical exercises…Concerning the motion of the heart and blood. With the preface of Zachariah Wood physician of Rottterdam. To which is added Dr. James De Black his discourse of the heart… London: Francis Leach for Richard Lowndes, 1653. "Harvey's small book is usually considered the most important single medical work ever published. …In this book, Harvey announced his discovery of the circulation, gave a clear

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description of the heart's action, and reported the experiments that provided proof of his assertions. He had performed these studies by himself over a period of several years on many classes of vertebrate and invertebrate animals." (Lilly Notable Medical Books, p. 63 citing the first edition, in Latin, Frankfurt, 1628). "This great work stands by itself. In the medical sciences there is nothing else in the same class. …Its achievement was more than a discovery: it was a revolution." ('Circulation of the blood men and ideas', ed. Alfred P. Fishman and D. W. Richards, 1964. Chap. II continues with a detailed analysis of the 1628 book.). The English translation was rendered from the Latin 1648 Rotterdam edition which included the commentaries. Also included here is the important first English translation of Harvey's 'Exercitation anatomica de circulatione sanguinis' from the Rotterdam 1649 edition (first published at Cambridge in 1649). Consisting of two letters, the second provides further experimental proof of the circulation of the blood. Keynes 19. Osler 714. Cushing H137. H. F. Norman Lib. Cat. 1008. Heirs 422. Waller 4105. Blocker Coll., p. 182. NLM (17th C.), no. 5338. Wellcome III.219. Citing the exceedingly rare first edition: PMM 127; Grolier 100/Science, no. 46; Grolier 100/Medicine, no. 27a. Heralds of Science 123 (also noting first English); GM 759. $44,000.

The Principia of Physiological Acoustics in a Prize Copy Signed by Lord Kelvin 139b. HELMHOLTZ, HERMANN VON (182194). Die lehre von den tonempfindungen als physiologische grundlage für die theorie der musik. Braunschweig: F. Vieweg & Son, 1863. "Helmhotz's 'Tonempfindungen' laid the groundwork for all subsequent research in the field of audition. It contains Helmholtz's resonance theory of hearing, the first elaborate theory of the mechanism of the ear. …Helmholtz's resonance theory remained unchallenged for over two decades. Helmholtz also explained differences of timbre as caused by differences in patterns of upper partial tone, and applied his discoveries to music theory…" (H. F. Norman Lib. 1044). GM 1562. Grolier 100/Science, no. 49a. Noted in PMM 233. See: Milestones of Science 95 for the English translation. $2,100.

Classic of Botany in English

140. HOFMEISTER, WHILHELM (182477). On the germination, development, and fructification of the higher cryptogamia and on the fructification of coniferae. London: Ray Society, 1862. "Entirely selftaught, Hofmeister attained full professorship and rank among the foremost botanists of the 1800's. He revealed the process of fertilization in nonflowering plants (cryptogams) as a regular alternation of sexual and asexual generations in the mosses, ferns, horsetails and liverworts. The asexual generation propagated by means of spores, alternating with one in which spermatozoids unite with ova." (Heralds of Science 34). "…the most outstanding figure among a constellation of brilliant botanists of the century, and one of the great botanists of all time…" (A. G. Morton, 'History of botanical science', 1981). Epochal Achievements, no. 89A. $975.

"…transformed the medical theory and practice of his epoch… profoundly influenced scientific thinking everywhere down to our times "

141. HUNTER, JOHN (172893). Observations on certain parts of the animal oeconomy. London: sold at No.13, CastleStreet, LeicesterSquare, 1786.

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GM 309. From John Hunter's press in his home was issued this collection of fourteen papers: "one of Hunter's major works... (containing) many of his studies and observations, including those on the descent of the testis into the scrotum, the structure of the placenta (see: Radcliffe, 'Milestones in midwifery', p.58), the mechanism of digestion, the air sac in birds, the secondary sexual characteristics of the freemartin and pheasant, and his original description of the olfactory nerves." (Heirs of Hippocrates 971 1840 Amer. ed.). Garrison has written of Hunter: "Hunter remains one of the great allaround biologists like Haller and Johannes Müller, and with Pare and Lister, one of the three greatest surgeons of all time... Hunter found surgery a mechanical art and left it an experimental science." J. Kober in 'The reluctant surgeon' has written: "(Hunter) not only transformed the medical theory and practice of his epoch, but profoundly influenced scientific thinking everywhere down to our times." N.L.M. (18th C.), p.226. Wellcome III. 137. Osler 1222. Waller 11845. H.F. Norman Lib. Cat. 1118. $1,350.

The Founder of Scientific Surgery 142 HUNTER, JOHN (172893). The works of John Hunter, F.R.S. With notes. Edited by James F. Palmer. London: Longman… 183537. GM 78. This impressive set with all volumes in the original cloth bindings encompasses the important contributions to anatomy and medicine of John Hunter, "…one of the great allaround biologists…, (and) one of the three greatest surgeons of all time…" (Fielding H. Garrison). Heirs of Hippocrates 974 & 975. Osler 1231. Cushing H520. $1,500.

The Copy of Lamarck's Champion with His Annotations 143. LAMARCK, JEAN BAPTISTE (17441820). Recherches sur l'organisation des corps vivans. Paris: L'Auteur & Maillard, n.d. (1802). This historically significant copy of Lamarck's treatise is the "first fulllength exposition of his evolutionary theories" (D.S.B.: 587a). Here Lamarck presents his two main principles, (1) it is not organs which have given rise to habits, but habits, modes of life, and environment which have given rise to organs, and (2) life is an order and condition of things in the parts of all bodies which possess it, which renders possible all the organic movements within. "Lamarck's two most famous hypotheses appear here as explanations of evolutionary phenomena: spontaneous generation, as a means of generating the simplest life forms; and the development, through repeated use, of new and heritable organs, as a means of producing more complex species." (H. F. Norman Lib. Cat. 1264). Heralds of Science 109 noted. $3,250.

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Early History of Worm Infestations in Man and Animals

144. LE CLERC, DANIEL (16521728). Historia naturalis et medica latorum lumbricorum, intra hominem & alia animalia. Geneva: Fratres de Tournes, 1715. “A Swiss physician, Le Clerc was born at Geneva and studied medicine at Montpellier and Paris. He received the M.D. degree at Valencia in 1670 and returned to Geneva to enter private practice. Although successful as a physician, and later as a politician, Le Clerc expended great energy in writing and scholarship. Considered by authorities to be the father of the history of medicine, Le Clerc is best known for his monumental 'Historie de la médicine' (1697). The present treatise reviews the history of worm infestations in man and animals from the time of Hippocrates to the author’s day. The plates (facsimile of plate 8, tapeworm, on p. 241 of ‘Heirs’) depicting various types of worms and their internal and external anatomy were taken from the author’s work as well as that of such individuals as Redi, Siegel, Ruysch, Bidloo, and Leeuwenhoek.” (Heirs of Hippocrates 681). N.L.M. (18th C.), p.261. Wellcome III. 470. Cole I. 1107 1721 English translation. See: GM 6379. $1,100.

Prize Essay by Linnaeus on the Sexes of Plants 145. LINNAEUS, CARL (170778). A dissertation on the sexes of plants. Translated from the Latin… by James Edward Smith. London: for the Author, 1786. Linnaeus' second published work (D.S.B. 12: 471472) originally appeared in 1760 in Latin at St. Petersburg, the translator was the English botanist and founder/first president of the Linnean Society in London, James Edward Smith (17591828). This dissertation was submitted by Linnaeus to the Imperial Academy at St. Petersburg as a participant in their contest for the best essay on the sexes of plants, a favored topic of Linnaeus. He was awarded 100 ducats at a public assembly of the Academy on 6 September 1760. Copies of the original were, according to Smith, little known, hence his interest in the translation. Freeman/Brit. Nat. Hist. Books, no. 2280. Soulsby 2117. $975.

A Fine Set of Magendie's 'New Physiology' 146. MAGENDIE, FRANCOIS (17831855). Précis élémentaire de physiologie. Paris: Méquignon Marvis, 1816 17. GM 597.1. "...Magendie devoted his career to the discovery and collection of facts, and exerted strong influence in orienting the discipline (physiology) toward experimental investigation. His ‘New physiology’, which he taught in a series of private courses, led him to write the 'Précis', a new type of physiological textbook in which doctrine and deductions founded upon anatomy were replaced with simple and precise descriptions of experimental facts. Volume two contains Magendie’s description of the importance of protein (nitrogenous substances) in the food supply of mammals; in his experiments on dogs given nonnitrogenous foods, Magendie induced the first experimental cases of an avitaminosis (specifically, lack of vitamin A)." (H. F. Norman Lib. Cat. 1416). D.S.B. 9: 89. Wellcome IV. 24. Heirs of Hippocrates 1379. Reynolds 2599. $1,250.

Early Treatise on Pestilential Fever by a PreVesalian Anatomist 147. MASSA, NICCOLÓ (14891569). Liber de febre pestilentiali. Venice: F. Bindoni & M. Pasini, 1540. This very scarce early book on pestilential fever is noted in the various medical histories, but little written is about it. Its author is the celebrated preVesalian anatomist, Niccoló Massa, a

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graduate of Padua and a teacher and practitioner in Venice. When Maggs Bros. Ltd. of London offered a copy in their 1929 catalogue, they commented: "He wrote several books, this one, on smallpox, being consulted even up to the present time." It was, as well, recognized as a significant book in its day as suggested by Gesner's inclusion of it in his 'Universal Library' of 1545 while he did not include Massa's 'Liber introductorius anatomiae' of 1536, see Thorndike, vol. 5, p. 514 and D.S.B. 9: 165166. A. Castigilione, 'Hist. med.', p. 467. On Massa, see: Thorndike, vol. 5, pp. 514519; GM 1536 & 2365; Heirs of Hippocrates 195199; R.H. Major, 'Hist. med.', vol. 1, p. 467. N.L.M. (16th C.), no. 2988. Wellcome I. 4105. Pybus 1311. Edinburgh Lib. Cat. 1571 and Cushing M177 2nd edition, 1556. $2,000.

With a Praised Suite of Plates Drawn from Microscopical Observations 148. MEYEN, FRANZ J.F. (180440). Ueber die neuesten fortschritte der anatomie und physiologie der gewächse. Haarlem: F. Bohn, 1836. The decade of the 1830's, a time of intensive microscopic investigations of plants and animals, culminated in the SchleidenSchwann cell theory. The young botanist, F. J. F. Meyen published at the beginning of this period his significant 'Phytotomie' (1830) which presented the new field of microscopic plant anatomy with excellent illustrations on 13 plates. Here again Meyen unfolds the latest advances in vegetable anatomy and physiology with 21 fine plates after his own drawings. "…praise is due to his drawings from the microscope which are beautifully executed…" (J. Sachs, 'Hist. botany' (1890/1967), pp. 285292. D.S.B. 9: 344345, whose bibliography cites publication at Berlin in 1837. Pritzel 6136. $1,500.

With Reid's ' 149. MIHLES, SAMUEL. The elements of surgery… Adapted to the use of the camp and navy, as well as of the domestic surgeon. The second edition, altered and considerably augmented… By Alexander Reid. London: R. Horsfield, 1764. The valuable Alexander Reid (171989) edition of Mihles' surgery treatise (original ed., 1746) with a fine suite of plates illustrating surgical instruments and procedures at mid18th century. A number of plates depict physicians and others in period dress. On the surgeon Reid see GM 4284. Wellcome IV. 133 & 497. N.L.M. (18th C.), p. 305. Pybus 1371 1746 ed. $800.

Protoplasm Named Heralds of Science No. 32 150. MOHL, HUGO VON (180572). Vermischte schriften botanischen inhalts. Tübingen: L.F. Fues, 1845. "After a century Mohl remains famous for his works on the microscopic anatomy of plants and for his contributions to knowledge of the plant cell." (D.S.B.). The present key volume in Mohl's publications gathers dissertations and papers from journals published from 1830 to 1842 and reprints them with additional material. "Von Mohl, professor of botany at Tübingen, gave the name protoplasm to the mucilaginous material within the plant cell adjacent to the membrane, a term that has grown to connote living substance." (Heralds of Science 32). Evans Epochal Achievements in the History of Science 87. Pritzel 6349. Sachs, 'Hist. botany', pp. 296297. $1,500.

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The Cell an Elementary Organ A Significant Presentation Copy 151. MOHL, HUGO VON (180572). Grundzüge der anatomie und physiologie der vegetabilischen zelle. Offprint: Wagner's Handwörterbuch der Physiologie. Braunschweig: Vieweg, 1851. GM 114. An important publication in the history of cytology in which Mohl "...summarized his own work, claiming priority in certain cases, and subjected the publications of his predecessors and contemporaries to a critical examination. He recalled that he was the first to demonstrate the fusion of aligned cells in the formation of ducts and to observe intracellular movements. He examined the structure of the cell and its derivatives, its generation by division or free formation, and its physiology as an organ of nutrition, of reproduction, and of movement." (D.S.B.). This first separate edition is the scarcer of two issues it has the added 'Vorrede' and 'Inhalt' with the text repaginated, but not reset, from the original appearance in Wagner's 'Handwörterbuch'. J.R. Baker, 'The cell theory', 1988 reprint, part II, p.94. Nordenskiöld, p.391. Pritzel 6351. $1,800.

152. AN EXTENSIVE COLLECTION OF PUBLICATIONS BY, AND RELATED TO, SAMUEL GEORGE MORTON (17991851) OF PHILADELPHIA

(1). MORTON, SAMUEL GEORGE. Tentamen inaugurale de corporis dolore. Edinburgh: P. Neill, 1823. (2). MORTON. Description of two new species of fossil shells of the genera Scaphites and Crepidula: with some observations on the ferruginous sand, plastic clay, and upper marine formations of the United States. Offprint: J. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., vol. 6 , 1829. (3). MORTON. Illustrations of pulmonary consumption. Phila.: Key & Biddle, 1834. (4) MORTON. Illustrations of pulmonary consumption. Phila.: Biddle. 1837. (5). MORTON. Crania Americana; or a comparative view of the skulls of various aboriginal nations of North and South America: to which is prefixed an essay on the varieties of the human species. Phila.: J. Dobson, 1839.

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(6). MORTON. A memoir of William Maclure. Phila.: T. K. & P. G. Collins, 1841. (7). MORTON. Crania Aegyptiaca; or, observations on Egyptian ethnography, derived from anatomy, history and the monuments. Phila.: J. Pennington, 1844. (8). MORTON. An illustrated system of human anatomy, special, general and microscopic. Phila.: Grigg, Elliot and Co., 1849. (9). Bound Contemporary Volume of Offprints, a Monograph, and Introductory Lectures. a. MORTON. Brief remarks on diversities of the human species… Introductory lecture…

Pennsylvania Medical College…Phila.: Merrihew & Thompson, 1842. b. MORTON. Additional observations on hybridity in animals… Charleston: Walker &

James, 185051. c. MORTON. Introductory lecture to a course of demonstrative anatomy. Phila.: Mifflin

& Parry, 1831. d. MORTON. An inquiry ino the distinctive characteristics of the aboriginal race of

America. Boston: Tuttle & Dennett, 1842. e. MORTON. Catalogue of skulls of man and the inferior animals. Phila.: Merihew &

Thompson, 1849. f. MORTON. Biographical notice of the late George McClellan, M.D. Phila.: W. F.

Geddes, 1849. g. RUSCHENBERGER, W. S. W. A notice of the origin, progress, and present condition

of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Phila.: Collins, 1860. (10). MACKINTOSH, JOHN (d.1837). Principles of pathology, and practice of physic. With notes and additions, by Samuel George Morton. Phila.: Key & Biddle, 1836. (11). (MORTON). DELAFIELD, JOHN, JR. (181265). An inquiry into the origin of the antiquities of America. With an Appendix… by James Lakey, M. D. NewYork: published for subscribers, by Colt, Burgess & Co., 1839. (12). LATHAM, ROBERT GORDON (181288). The natural history of the varieties of man. London: John Van Voorst, 1850. (13). MEIGS, CHARLES D. (17921860). A memoir of Samuel George Morton, M.D. Phila.: T.K. and P. G. Collins, 1851.

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(14). WOOD, GEORGE B. (17971897). A biographical memoir of Samuel George Morton. Phila.: T.K. and P. G. Collins, 1853. (15). PATTERSON, HENRY S. Memoir of the life and scientific labors of Samuel George Morton, M.D. Phila.: Lippincott, Grambo & Co., 1854. (16). MEIGS, J. AITKEN (182979). Catalogue of human crania, in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Phila., 1857. (17). NOTT, J.C. (1804) and GEO. GLIDDON (180957). Indigenous races of the earth; new chapters of ethnological inquiry. Phila.: J. B. Lipppincott, 1857. (18). PENDELTON, W. N. Science a witness for the Bible. Phila.: J. B. Lippincott, 1860. The eminent American craniologist, Samuel George Morton, published the leading works on the subject: 'Crania Americana' (5), which is GM 201, and 'Crania Aegyptiaca' (7). The former "…by its use of physical measurements, the classification and comparison of data, and its accurate drawings, was a landmark in anthropology. In an 'Introductory Essay' of ninetyfive pages Morton asserted that the American Indians are a separate race, not descendents of migrants from Asia. …Morton had devised ingenious ways to measure and calculate the capacity of craniums and concluded that races are distinguished by their skulls as well as by color." (D.S.B.). Stephen Jay Gould disputed Morton's measurements, presumably in favor of Morton's bias towards Caucasians. Following his 1978 paper on the subject, Gould presented this view in his 'The mismeasure of man' (1981). In 1996, Gould revised his book to accommodate remeasuring work done by John Michael. Then an analysis (2011) by University of Pennsylvania students (Lewis et al) turned the tables showing that it was Gould's work that showed a bias. And finally in 2014, Michael Weissberg at the Univ. of Penn. revisited both sides and concluded "…Gould's charge that Morton analyses exhibited racial bias seems welljustified." Gould's analytical errors uncovered by Lewis et al stand, "…but his two most important claims…are sound." (Weissberg). Morton also published an important treatise on pulmonary tuberculosis (3 & 4), the first book on the subject published in the U.S. and GM 3222. (1) is Morton's thesis for his M.D. at Edinburgh having already received one at Penn in 1820. (9) contains Morton's important catalogue of crania which was updated by J. Aitken Meigs (16). In 1849 Morton published his large textbook on human anatomy which was the earliest native American book on microscopic anatomy and histology. The remarkable production, (11), a book by the prominent New York banker, John Delafield, Jr. has a fragile, exceptionally long lithographed frontispiece of the Botturini Codex, now in the Musee Nacional de Anthropologica, Mexico City. Delafield concluded that native North and South Americans migrated across the Bering Straits based on linguistic, somatic, mythic and other proof. In (12), by Latham, there are, as in other works in this collection, references to the publications of Samuel George Morton. The important memoirs of Morton published shortly after his death (13, 14, 15) have been relied on by modern biographers for details of his life and work. J. Aitken Meigs definitively catalogued Morton's skull collection (16), a collection which has continued to grow after

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Morton's death in 1851. Wood wrote that Morton's Crania Cabinet cost Morton 10 to 15 thousand dollars. Fortytwo gentlemen paid Morton's executors $4,000 for it and donated the collection to the Academy. Following on the very successful 'Types of mankind' of 1854, Nott and Gliddon's 'Indigenous races' (17) of 1857 was issued to subscribers (trade issue in smaller format in American Culture Series). They attempted to prove in their two books that each of the different races of man sprang from a fixed type. (18) includes a number of references to Morton and the 'Crania Americana'. D.S.B. 9: 540541. G. H. Daniels, 'Amer. Sci. Age Jackson' (1968). $9,500.

An Important Bibliographic Discovery Ether Day

153. MORTON, WILLIAM T. G. (181968). The most agreeable, easy, pleasant and natural style of setting teeth. / Dr. Morton, (late Wells & Morton,) No. 19, Tremont Row, Boston. (Headline of second section): Teeth extracted without pain. (Boston): From the press of the Evening Gazette, n.d. [after Oct. 28, 1846, on or before Nov. 12 or 24, (1846)]. This important document, unlocated in world collections and not noted or described in the literature of early surgical anesthesia, was issued by Dr. William Morton at Boston on or before November 12 or 24, 1846. The famous surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital was undertaken by Dr. John Collins Warren on October 16, 1846 with Morton administering ether as an anaesthetic for the first time. "Warren removed a benign angioma under the jaw of his patient. It was immediately recognized that complete anaesthesia could be produced by the inhalation of ether vapour. Bigelow, a surgeon who witnessed the operation, left an excellent account… which was read before the Boston Society of Medical Improvement on 9 November 1846, an abstract having been previously read before the American Academy of Arts and Sciences on 3 November." (GM 5651). The first part of the broadside concerns Morton's promotion of his innovative artificial set of teeth. The long list of persons supporting his dental methods is headed by Drs. J. C. Warren and G. Hayward, and an October 28, 1846 testimonial by Dr. Charles T. Jackson praises his use of 20 ct gold solder to unite the gold plates. Further, a valuable detailed account of his premises is given by an anonymous visitor. It is the second part of the broadside which is of greater historical interest, therein Morton presents several news accounts of the successful October 16 procedure, under surgical anesthesia with sulphuric ether. Included are Warren's statement of October 17, Hayward's of October 20, and Heywood's of October 22. In addition to testaments of the momentous event, Morton includes notice of the extraction of teeth without pain using his "new preparation". The latest date cited on the broadside is October 28, 1846. There is no mention of the new term 'Letheon' for the secret anesthetic agent. In the chronology of the early publications on Ether Day and its immediate aftermath this broadside is among the earliest. Fulton and Stanton in their extensive and much researched catalogue for the centennial celebration at Yale ('The centennial of surgical anesthesia an annotated catalogue of books and pamphlets bearing on the early history of surgical anesthesia', 1946) declared: "The first printed document on anesthesia issued and signed by Morton was a singlepage folded sheet addressed 'To Surgeons and Physicians' stating that the 'Subscriber' is prepared to furnish 'a person fully competent to administer his compounds.' (Also see, R. J. Wolfe, 'Tarnished Idol', 2001, pp. 103104 and fig. 20, and Grolier 100/Medicine, no. 64B). The copy preserved in the Library of the Massachusetts Historical Society, addressed to Dr. J. Mason Warren, bears a postmark of 20 November [1846]. "A second copy of Morton's notice (both are Fulton and Stanton IV.6) in the Essex Institute is postmarked Boston, Nov. 23. These 'To Surgeons and Physicians' postmarks fall within the two possible readings of the postmark on the present broadside. Hence this unrecorded broadside qualifies as either the first or second earliest 'printed document on anesthesia issued and signed by Morton'. Fulton and Stanton IV. 8 refers to an undated 'Testimonial Circular' noted as a 'handbill' by N. I. Bowditch in his 1848 publication. Bowditch gives its text, which is not nearly as lengthy as that on the present broadside. Both, however, include the three testimonial quotations by Warren,

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Hayward, and Heywood with italicized phrases concerning Morton's participation introduced, in Fulton and Stanton's judgment, by Bowditch in his 1848 description of the handbill (no italicized phrases in the quotations on the offered broadside). Bowditch specified no title and Fulton and Stanton located no copies of the handbill. The recently uncovered broadside offered here is not in Fulton & Stanton, Keys, 'Tarnished Idol', OCLC, or any of the consulted anesthesia and dental collections and websites. "With the patient still lying like a log upon the table, Dr. Warren turned to the audience and said slowly and emphatically: 'Gentlemen! this is no humbug'." (Dr. A. A. Gould, present at the landmark procedure). $25,000.

Grolier One Hundred Books Famous in Science, No. 76 154. MÜLLER, JOHANNES (180158). Ueber die phantastischen gesichter scheinungen. Eine physiologische untersuchung. Coblenz: J. Hölsucher, 1826. GM 1456. The great German physiologist, Johannes Müller's, "exposition of the doctrine of specific nerve energies…" (Grolier/Science 100, no. 76). In 1840 he stated in his 'Handbuch' the law of specific nerve energies each nerve of special sense, however excited, gives rise to its own peculiar sensation. D. Albert, 'Source book of ophthalmology', no. 1622. Heirs of Hippocrates 1631. H.F. Norman Lib. Cat. 1567. Cushing M570. $1,200.

'The Religious Philosopher' First Comprehensive Manual on Intelligent Design 155. NIEUWENTYT, BERNARD (16541718). Het regt gebruik der werelt beschouwingen. Amsterdam: J. Wolters, 1715. The Dutchman, Bernard Nieuwentyt, a small town (Purmerend) physician, is known primarily for two large works, 'Analysis infinitorum' (1695) and 'The religious philosopher' (1714/15) to give its title as applied to the English translation of 1718. In the former, "…the first comprehensive book on 'analysis infinitorum'….", Nieuwentyt "…reveals his full acquaintance with the mathematics of his period and a remarkable selfreliance." (D.S.B.). The present book is of interest in the current debate concerning Intelligent Design. Nieuwentyt's massive work is "…intended to demonstrate the existence of God by teleological arguments. Never before had this been tried on such a scale, and none among Nieuwentyt's numerous imitators equaled his completeness. …(he) was one of the first who, rather than relying on a few examples, reviewed the whole of natural sciences to show in detail how marvelously things fitted in the world. His work looks like a manual of uptodate science and as such it may have contributed to the propagation of knowledge." (D.S.B.). Besides the 1718 English translation, a French (1725), and a German (1732) edition also appeared; the book remained popular past the midcentury. Bierens de Haan, no. 3561 (1714 ed.). Poggendorff II. 289. N.L.M. (18th C.), p. 325. Wellcome IV. 238239 (1720 & 1725 eds.). 'Beads of glass: Leeuwenhoek and the early microscope' (1983), pp. 1011 (1715 ed.). Neville II. 230 3rd English ed. with facsimile of a plate. $1,800.

The 'Opera Omnia' Containing Noteworthy Studies of the Glands Includes the 'Canal of Nuck'

156. NUCK, ANTON (165092). Opera omnia anatomica, et chirurgica (general title). 1. Operationes et experimenta chirurgica. 2. Sialographia, et ductuum aquosorum anatome nova... Adenographia curiosa... Leyden: S. Luchtmans, 1733, 1723, 1722.

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"Anton Nuck practiced first at The Hague and then became professor of anatomy and surgery at Leyden in 1687. He was well known as an oculist, aurist and dentist. His studies of glands and lymph glands were noteworthy. His best known works were 'Sialographia et ductum aquosorum anatome nova', Leyden, 1695, and 'Adenographia', Leyden, 1692. ...His anatomical description of the various glands were (sic) highly praised by Soemmering a century later. In anatomy, his name is perpetuated by the canal of Nuck." (R. H. Major, 'Hist. medicine', 1954). This set, the first collected edition, was made up from the sheets of the final editions of Nuck's works. See: GM 1101 & 1213 for the original editions; Becker Ophthal. Coll. Cat., nos. 276 & 277. Heirs of Hippocrates 674; otherwise this collected edition is lacking from the usual medical collections. Hagelin, 'The womans booke' (1990), pp.7677, reproducing the engraved title to 'Adenographia' (1722), as here. $1,500. 157. [OTIS, GEORGE A.] (183081). A report on amputations at the hipjoint. Washington: G.P.O., 1867. "…the strength of this work is in the spectacular plates, five of which are chromolithographs. More important, some of the plates are engravings taken from actual photographs. These are among the earliest examples of such a process in American surgical texts." (Rutkow OR18 figs. 84 & 86, facsimiles of plates). Kelly & Burrage, pp. 924925. Orr 1417. Cordasco 601350. $975.

The Work of Pander and Von Baer "Revolutionized Embryology" Pander's Thesis "Legendary Rarity"

158. PANDER, CHRISTIAN H. (17941865). Dissertatio inauguralis sistens historiam metamorphoseos, quam ovum incubatum prioribus quinque diebus subit. Würzburg: F. E. Nitribitt, 1817. "First edition of a fundamental work in embryology and legendary rarity. …Pander studied at the University of Würzburg under the great biologist and teacher Ignaz Döllinger, who had expressed the hope that one of his students would investigate the development of the chick embryo. Pander took up the task for his doctoral thesis. Building upon the work of Malpighi and Caspar Friedrich Wolff, Pander's thesis methodically describes the different layers from which the various organs of the chicken embryo emerge. He discovered the threelayered structure of the blastoderm, a term he coined. "In the twelfth hour of embryonic development he reported that the blastoderm consisted of two entirely separate layers: an inner layer, thick and opaque; and an outer layer, thin, smooth, and transparent. Between these two a third layer developed, in which blood vessels formed and from which 'events of the greatest importance subsequently occur.' (D.S.B.). Pander sent a copy of his thesis to his friend and colleague Karl von Baer, who immediately began his own investigations of the subject, leading to his identification of the mammalian ovum. Together the work of the two biologists revolutionized embryology…" (H. F. Norman Lib. Sale, Christie's 29 Oct. 1998, lot 1232). GM 474. Cole II.267. Noted in Grolier/Medicine 100, no. 59. $9,500.

Presentation Copy to His Assistant, Colleague, and Close Friend 159. PASTEUR, LOUIS (182295). Études sur le vin: Ses maladies, causes qui les provoquent, procédés nouveasux pour le conserver et pour le vieillir. Paris: Imprimerie Impériale, 1866.

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"Although Pasteur's method of preserving wine by partial heat sterilization ('pasteurization') turned out to be a revival of Appert's invention, Pasteur did rescue the method from oblivion and established on the basis of rigorous scientific experiments what had been only a poorly tested and entirely empirical technique." (GM 2479). On page 99 of this presentation copy to him, Gernez is acknowledged by Pasteur for his assistance in the laboratory work. Milestones of Science 160. Bulloch, p. 61. H. F. Norman Lib. 1655. $6,000.

Treated Samuel Johnson for Sacrocele 160. POTT, PERCIVAL (17141788). Practical remarks on the hydrocele or watery rupture, and some other diseases of the testicl*, its coats, and vessels. London: C. Hitch and L. Hawes, 1762. GM 4164. "Pott (was) one of the most prominent surgeons and teachers of surgery in London during the third quarter of the eighteenth century..." (Lilly Notable Medical Books, p.121). "Pott's sequel to his 'Treatise on ruptures' contains the classic description of hydrocele and discusses other types of scrotal swelling and tumor. The last section of the work deals with sacrocele, from which Samuel Johnson suffered in his last years and for which Pott treated him shortly before his death." (H.F. Norman Lib. Cat. 1732). N.L.M. (18th C.), p.361. Wellcome IV. 423. Pybus 1622. Heirs of Hippocrates 929 (2nd ed., 1767). Not in Blocker Coll., Waller, Osler, Cushing, or Reynolds. $1,500. 160a. RIDGWAY, ROBERT (18501929). A nomenclature of colors for naturalists, and compendium of useful knowledge for ornithologists. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1886. The American ornithologist, Robert Ridgway, the author of a number of large works on American birds, was the originator of the Ridegway color system for describing bird coloration. The visually attractive plates have a fresh, handpainted quality. He was the first fulltime curator of birds at the Smithsonian. His first of two books to standardize the names of colors used by ornithologists appeared in 1886 illustrating 186 colors and proposing a simple classification system. $750.

First Edition of Rush's TwoVolume Rush's Cullen

Samuel Stanhope Smith's 161. RUSH, BENJAMIN (17451813). Medical inquiries and observations. Phila.: Prichard & Hall, 1789. Bound with: RUSH, BENJAMIN. An euologium in honor of the late Dr. Willam Cullen. Phila.: Thomas Dobson, 1790. Bound with: SMITH, SAMUEL, STANHOPE (17501819). An essay on the causes of the variety of complexion and figure in the human species. Phila.: Robert Aiken, 1787. With: RUSH, BENJAMIN. Medical inquiries and observations. Volume II. Phila.: T. Dobson, 1793.

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"A professor for much of his life, (Rush) trained as many as three thousand doctors, a great proportion of all those who practice 'physick' in the United States. He also composed a huge array of pamphlets full of firm advice on every aspect of the healing art. As a result he was probably the most influential figure in American medicine and remained so until long after his death." (B. A. Weisberger, 'The paradoxical Doctor Benjamin Rush', American Heritage, Dec. 1975, pp. 4047, 9899). One of Rush's more important medical books appeared in 1789 as 'Medical inquiries and observations', cited as GM 5470 for 'An account of the bilious remitting fever' (pp. 89100): "One of the first important accounts of dengue ('breakbone fever'). Rush described the Philadelphia outbreak of 1780." The book is dedicated to Dr. John Redman with whom the young Rush apprenticed for 5 1/2 years before studying at Edinburgh and Leyden. Also included are his tracts on American Indian medicine (GM 6451.90 orig. pub., 1774: "...the first American physician to publish a detailed study of American Indian medicine."), on the effect of climate on the body, on pulmonary consumption, on the external use of arsenic in the cure of cancers, on the influence of military and political events of the American Revolution on the body; and in the appendix, the new method of inoculating for smallpox (GM 5422 orig pub., 1781), and the duties of a physician. At Edinburgh, Rush came under the influence of Dr. William Cullen (171090) and his theory of disease based on life energy. For 20 years before developing his theory, Rush was an ardent defender of Cullen. His 'Eulogium' in his honor was delivered before the College of Physicians of Philadelphia on 9th July 1790. With these Rush publications is bound "…the first significant anthropological work produced in American, (in which) Smith (17501819) argued that racial differences were produced by environment, contradicting the prevalent theories of separate creations of discrete and different races." (GM 156.1). Rush Bibliography: 178917, 17902, 179313. Austin 1659, 1641, 1776. N.L.M. (18th C.), pp. 393, 394, 422. $2,500.

"Unexampled Fidelity" Rare Classic of Brain Anatomy 162. SOEMMERRING, SAMUEL THOMAS (17551830). Tabula baseos encephali. Frankfurt am Main: for the Author, 1799. Among the rarest of works in neurology is Soemmerring's brief but beautiful followup to his doctoral dissertation of 1778, the 'Tabula baseos encephali', which was published at his own expense in . Choulant/Frank (p. 307) remarks: "The brain is represented with an unexampled fidelity." The important feature of this publication is the two aquatint plates based on the brain of a threeyearold boy drawn by the artist Köck and engraved by Pierre M. Alix (17621817) of Paris. From this work, and Soemmerring's earlier dissertation, comes the modern classification of the cranial nerves. See: GM 1383. Heirs of Hippocrates 1133 with inferior fullpage facsimile of the plate on page 367. Waller 9050. Garrison/McHenry, pp. 9397. Pybus 1980. $3,250.

Finely Illustrated MidEighteenth Century Fetal and Adult Skeletal Anatomy 163. TARIN, PIERRE (172561). Osteographie; ou, description des os de l'adulte, du foetus, etc. Precedée d'une introduction a l'etude des parties solides du corps humain. Paris: Briasson, 1753. The French anatomist, Pierre Tarin, "…was responsible for the section on anatomy in Diderot's 'Encyclopédié' and is eponymously remembered for the 'valves of Tarin'. This atlas of the skeletal system of the fetus and adult contains excellent detailed engravings. Several of these plates were taken from Albinus. Following a lengthy introduction to the study of human anatomy in French, the remainder of Tarin's text is presented in Latin and French on opposite pages." (Heirs of Hippocrates 961). A series of nine plates treat the skull and its structures in considerable detail, and a number of long folding plates illustrate the full skeleton. Choulant, p. 283. $1,500.

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"Surprisingly modern study…" of Comparative Brain Anatomy

164. TIEDEMANN, FRIEDRICH (17811861). Das hirn des negers mit dem des Europäers und orangoutangs verglichen. Heidelberg: K. Winter, 1837. Professor of anatomy and physiology at Heidelberg, Tiedemann published in English in the journal 'Philosophical Transactions' (1836) 'On the brain of the Negro compared with that of the European and the orangoutang'. "In this surprisingly modern study, Tiedemann showed that, in contrast to the large difference between the forebrains of apes and men, no substantial differences could be found between the brains of the races of men…" (D.S.B.). This and other findings led him to conclude "…that there was no natural formation or disposition of the brain in Negroes that would substantiate the notion of their predestined subservient state. (D.S.B.). Stephen J. Gould is critical of Tiedemann's work in his 'The Mismeasure of Man' (1981), but recently Gould's own study in the field has been seriously criticized by new measurements and analysis (see item 152). Of the usual medical collections, only Cushing T113 lists this book. $850.

"…a classic in theoretical biology" 165. TREVIRANUS, GOTTFRIED R. (17761837). Die erscheinungen und gesetze organischen leben. Bremen: J. G. Heyse, 18313233. Treviranus' magnum opus 'Biologie' (180222) in six volumes, "…sought to summarize all basic knowledge of his time about the structure and function of living matter." (D.S.B.). In the last decade of his life, Treviranus "…published his ideas in a more condensed form in 'Erscheinungen und Gesetze' (18311832), a classic in theoretical biology. In this work he also incorporated an account of the advances made in biology during the preceding thirty years. He paid greater attention to mindbody relations, the process of generation, periodicity, constitution, health and disease, and temperament." (D.S.B.). See: GM 105. $1,100.

Spontaneous Generation Laid to Rest Offprint Set 166. TYNDALL, JOHN (182093). The optical deportment of the atmosphere in relation to the phenomena of putrefaction and infection. With: Further researches on the deportment and vital persistence of putrefactive and infective organisms from a physical point of view. London: Trübner, 187677. GM 1932 (the first entry under 'Antibiotics'). "Tyndall approached bacteriology by way of physics. During his researches on radiant heat, he had been greatly impressed by the difficulty of removing the particles that were floating in the atmosphere. He later began to focus his attention on these atmospheric particles, publishing two important memoirs in the 'Philosophical Transactions' (1876, 1877)... The first of these memoirs described his experiments with a hermetically sealed chamber in which the atmospheric dust had been allowed to settle; sterilized infusions protected within this chamber remained uninfected for months, while similar infusions exposed to air all showed bacterial growth. Tyndall pursued these researches further in his second memoir, demonstrating that only a small amount of atmospheric dust was required for contamination, and testing the limits of heat resistance of the infecting bacteria. As bacteria pass through a thermoresistant latent stage as well as an active one, Tyndall devised a method of discontinuous boiling ('Tyndallization') to render infusions completely sterile. Tyndall's researches, along with those of Pasteur, dealt the final blow to the doctrine of spontaneous generation." (H. F. Norman Lib. Cat. 2119 commentary for 1881 book appearance). Bulloch, 'Hist. bacteriology', 1938, p. 400. Lechevalier & Solotorovsky, 'Three centuries microbiology', 1974, p. 37. Blocker Coll., p. 398. $975.

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Classic of Pediatrics Third Edition with the Added Dissertation on Human Milk 167. UNDERWOOD, MICHAEL (17371820). A treatise on the diseases of children, with general directions for the management of infants from the birth. London: J. Mathews, 1795. In the first edition (1794) of this classic of pediatrics, Underwood gave "...the first description of sclerema neonatorum ('Underwood's disease'), the first discussion of pediatric luxations and fractures since Wurtz's treatise 200 years earlier, pioneer essays on infant psychology and artificial feeding..., and descriptions of approximately forty 'new disorders' of children." (H. F. Norman Lib. Cat. 2121). In the second edition is the first account of poliomyelitis in children. The main and substantial addition to the revised third edition of 1795 is Underwood's dissertation on the nature and properties of human milk based on his experiments (vol. 2, part II, 52 pp. with a folding table). Here Underwood also recognized more than twenty diseases not previously noticed, and he enlargened his 'Directions for the management of nursery.' Grolier 100/Medicine, no. 48 and Lilly Notable Med. Books, p. 137 first edition. N.L.M. (18th C.), p. 463. Pybus 2170 this edition only. $1,000.

MATHEMATICS

"…the most celebrated Italian woman of the scientific revolution" 'Hypatia's Heritage' 168. AGNESI, MARIA GAETANA (171899). Analytical institutions in four books… Translated into English by the late Rev. John Colson. London: printed by Wills and Taylor (at the expense of Baron de Maséres), 1801. When this large treatise appeared at Milano in 1748 in Italian, it signaled that "the first woman in the Western world who can be accurately called a mathematician… (in 1748 she published) her masterpiece. …This book won immediate acclaim in academic circles all over Europe…" (D.S.B.). "Agnesi's 'Instituzioni Analitiche' is believed to be the first advanced mathematics book by a woman. The text is one of the earliest by anyone to provide a comprehensive introduction to algebra, geometry, differential calculus, integral calculus, and differential equations." (Grolier/Extraordinary Women in Science, no. 69). "It was the first systematic work of its kind and was widely translated. Fifty years later it was still the most complete mathematical text in existence." (M. Alic, 'Hypatia's heritage", 1986). The Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, John Colson (16301760), translated the work into English, though it remained in manuscript until Maséres funded its publication under the editorship of John Hellins. The English translation finally appeared two years after her death. Colson and Hellins each added introductions with the former supplying a useful detailed 'Plan' of the treatise as well. F. Cajori, 'A hist. the conceptions of limits and fluxions in Great Britain', 1919, pp. 247250 discusses this edition. Riccardi.I. 8.2. Ogilvie, 'Women in science', pp. 2628. Very scarce. $3,200.

First Edition of the BolzanoWeierstrass Theorem, as It Is Now Known With Bolzano's Doctoral Thesis, "…a bold effort to reorganize elementary geometry"

169. BOLZANO, BERNARD (17811848). Rein analytischer beweis des lehrsatzes dass zwischen je zwey werhen die ein entgegengesetztes reultat gewähren, wenigstens eine reelle wurzel der gleichung liege. Prague: Gottlieb Haase, 1817. Bound with: Betrachtungen über einige gegenstände der elementargeometrie. Prague: Karl Barth, 1804. Bound with: Lebensbeschreibung des Dr. B. Bolzano… (ed. M. J. Fesl). Sulzbach: J. E. v. Seidels, 1836.

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A valuable volume containing two very rare mathematical works by the Czech mathematician and philosopher, Bernard Bolzano. Foremost is his classic short treatise of 1817 introducing rigor to the calculus. Bound here as well is Bolzano's first published mathematical work, his 1804 doctoral thesis on geometry. Describing the 1804 treatise is this quotation from the D.S.B.: "…in which he tried to base the theory of triangles and parallels on a theory of lines, without recourse to theorems of the plane. The full development of this theory of lines was postponed and although Bolzano often returned to the theory of parallels (without success), his linear theory was never completed." "The work…consists of three parts: a Preface outlines Bolzano's motivation and what he regards as original in the work. Part I contains a theory of triangles and parallel lines, and Part II is a sketch of ideas for a theory of the straight line." "…a bold effort to reorganize elementary geometry." (S. Russ, 'The mathematical works of Bernard Bolzano', 2004 with the title page of this 1804 work reproduced on the dustjacket.). The theorem at the focus of Bolzano's 1817 landmark treatise, 'Purely analytic proof of the theorem that between any two values, which give results of opposite sign, there lies at least on real root of the equation', is now known as the BolzanoWeierstrass theorem. "There was a gap of some fifty years between the work of Bolzano and that of Weierstrass, but the unity of effort in this half century and the need for rediscovering Bolzano's work were such that there is a celebrated theorem that bears the name of both men, the BolzanoWeierstrass theorem: A bounded set S containing infinitely many elements (such as points or numbers) contains at least one limit point. Although this theorem was proved by Bolzano and apparently was known also to Cauchy, it was the work of Weierstrass that made it familiar to mathematicians." (Boyer & Merzbach, 'Hist. math.', 1991; they note that Klein referred to Bolzano as the 'father of arithmetization' due to his full awareness of the need for rigor in analysis.) The third work in this volume is Bolzano's autobiography with an engraved portrait of him which is reproduced on the dustjacket of Russ' English translations of Bolzano's mathematical works. Parkinson, 'Breakthroughs', 1985, p. 265. $22,500.

Founder of the Modern Science of Mathematical Logic 170. BOOLE, GEORGE (181564). An investigation of the laws of thought, on which are founded the mathematical theories of logic and probabilities. London: Walton and Maberly and Cambridge: Macmillan and Co., 1854. For a discussion on the issue points of this book, see H. F. Norman Lib. I.226 (second issue), though it is likely more complex than covered there. "Boole invented the first practical system of logic in algebraic form, which enabled more advances in logic to be made in the decades of the nineteenth century than in the twentytwo centuries preceding. Boole's work led to the creation of set theory and probability theory in mathematics, to the philosophical work of Peirce, Russell, Whitehead, and Wittgenstein, and to computer technology via the master's thesis of Claude Shannon (see item 272a) who recognized that the true/false values in Boole's two valued logic were analogous to the open and closed states of electric circuits." See: Augustus DeMorgan, no. 177 of this catalogue. ('The origins of cyberspace', no. 69). 'Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics 16401940', 2005, chap. 36. Tomash Lib. Hist. Computing I. B198. $5,000.

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Fine WoodcutIllustrated French Renaissance Geometry 171. BOUELLES, CHARLES DE (14791566). Geometrie pratique. Paris: Regnaud Chaudiere, & Claude Son filz., 1547. Bouelles, canon of Noyon, published this, the first French geometry, in 1542 under the imprint of Simon de Colines. That edition had the verse and woodcut of drawing instruments as a title page rather than the elaborate ornamental title as here. Instead the verse and woodcut was placed on the verso of the Chaudiére title. This second edition, and the 1551 and 1555 reprints, was enlarged with additional text at the end of chapter 7, and with chapter 8 as entirely new. They deal with proportion, geometrical forms of the letters, and geometry applied to astronomy and astrology. Bouelles, a pupil of Lefevre d'Etaples, is known in mathematics as a geometer and number theorist, but he also was an important voice in the development of early humanism in France. Among his works are those on the French language, divinity, and metaphysics. This handsome book was printed in Roman and italic type; the woodcut coat of arms at the end is understood to be that of Bouelles. In the D.S.B., the present book is cited as a translation into French of his Latin 'Geometricae introductionis' of 1503, however Brunet states that the texts are not the same, see Mortimer, 'Harvard French 16th C. Books', nos. 115 & 116. Notable Mathematicians, pp. 7576. Honeyman Sale 441. $7,000.

To Free Geometry 172. CARNOT, LAZARE N.M. (17531823). De la correlation des figures de geometrie. Paris: Crapelet, 1801. Like his mentor Gaspard Monge, Lazare Carnot intended in his work to revitalize pure geometry and "to free geometry from the hieroglyphics of analysis". "Monge had espoused the joint use of analysis and pure geometry, but Carnot refused to use analytic methods and started the championship of pure geometry. ...Thus the principle that Monge called contingent relations and which became known also as the principle of correlativity and more commonly as the principle of continuity is to be found there. To avoid separate figures for various sizes of angles and directions of lines Carnot did not use negative numbers, which he regarded as contradictory, but introduced a complicated scheme called 'correspondence of signs'." (M. Kline, "Math. thought from ancient to modern times", 1972, p.841). In 1803, Carnot extended his work on the subject in his 'Geometrie de position'. A second edition of 'Correlation' appeared in 1806. D.S.B. 3: 7079. Poggendorff I. 381. $800.

Brought Rigor to the Calculus 173. CAUCHY, AUGUSTINLOUIS (17891857). Cours d'analyse de l'École Polytechnique… 1. re partie. Analyse algébrique. (All published). (Paris): l'Imprimerie Royale, 1821. Cauchy's revolutionary 'Cours d'analyse' is "…the book in which we could see mathematical analysis, in the sense now understood by the term, come into fruition. He expounded the theory of limits in much more detail than anyone before him… (A feature)…of all aspects of Cauchy's analysis is that they do not rely on geometrical considerations. By using the theory of limits as a source of definitions of basic properties, and the arithmetic of inequalities as the chief device in proofs, Cauchy was able to bring to mathematical analysis an autonomy from both geometry and algebra. A striking feature of 'Cours d'analyse', and the 'Resumé' on the calculus, is that not a single diagram is used, not even for illustrative purposes." (I. GrattanGuinness (ed.), 'From calculus to set

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theory', 1980). Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics', chap. 25. En Francais dans le text, no. 231. C.B. Boyer, 'The history of the calculus (1949), chap. 7. $3,600.

One of the Best Textbooks on the Subject 174. CLAVIUS, CHRISTOPH (15371612). Algebra. Geneva: Stephan Gamonet, 1609. Clavius, Germanborn Jesuit mathematician/astronomer, wrote important treatises on the calendar, geometry, astrolabe, sundials, and a commentary on Sacrobosco. "His algebra appeared in 1608 and was one of the best textbooks on the subject that had been written to that time." (D. E. Smith, 'Hist. math. I', pp. 334335, with portrait facsimile). It "…marks the appearance in Italy of the German plus (+) and minus () signs of algebraic symbols used by Stifel. He was one of the very first to use parentheses to express aggregation of terms. As symbol of the unknown quantity, he used the German radix… For additional unknowns he used 1A, 1B, etc…. In his 'Algebra', Clavius did not take notice of negative roots, but he recognized that the quadratic x2 + c = bx may be satisfied by two values of x. His geometrical proof for his statement was one of the best and most complete." (D.S.B.). The 1609 Geneva issue is a new setting of type of the original printed in Rome in 1608. Further there are two states of the 1609 title page: 'Genevae' as place of publication, as here, and the Latin form 'Aurelianae Allobrogum'. Rider, 'Biblio. early mod. algebra', p. 33 1608. Roller & Goodman I. 234 1609. $2,700.

Cotes' Theorem and Cotes' Rule 175. COTES, ROGER (16821716). Harmonia mensurarum, sive analysis & synthesis per rationum & angulorum mensuras promotae: accedunt alia opuscula mathematica… edidit et auxit Robertus Smith. Cambridge, 1722. Robert Smith (16891768), Cotes' cousin, assistant and successor at Trinity College, Cambridge edited Cotes' mathematical papers on his death. The D.S.B. comments: "…then in great confusion, (they) were edited by Robert Smith and published as a book, 'Harmonia mensurarum' (1722). This work, which includes the 'Logometria' as its first part (Cotes' only lifetime publication in 1714), gives an indication of Cotes's great ability. His style is somewhat obscure, with geometrical arguments preferred to analytical ones, and many results are quoted without explanation. What cannot be obscured is the original, systematic genius of the writer. This is shown most powerfully in his work on integration, in which long sequences of complicated functions are systematically integrated, and the results are applied to the solution of a great variety of problems." "Professor Morgan calls it 'the earliest work in which decided progress was made in the application of logarithms and of the properties of the circle to the calculus of fluents'. It is also the first complete treatise on the integral calculus…" (Babson/Newton, First Suppl., p. 29). S.M. Stigler, 'Hist. statistics', 1986, p. 16. Tomash Lib. C184. $5,000.

The Work in Analysis That Made the Author Famous 176. CROUSAZ, JEANPIERRE DE (16631750). Commentaire sur l'analyse des infiniment petit*. Paris: Montalant, 1721. Professor of philosophy and mathematics at the Academy of Lausanne, Crousaz's work in analysis "…made him famous… (Published) three years after the work of l'Hospital (sic, the second edition actually appeared in 1715), the contents of which Crousaz examines step by step. Crousaz had fully assimilated infinitesimal calculus, and had no doubt taught if correctly to his students. …this book contributed in great part to the nomination of Crousaz, in 1725, as associate foreign member of the Académie des Sciences of Paris." (DSB). D.E. Smith, 'Hist. math. I', pp. 519520. $1,400.

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Presentation Copy to His Former Star Student and Colleague

177. DE MORGAN, AUGUSTUS (180671). Formal logic: or, the calculus of inference, necessary and probable. London: Taylor and Walton, 1847. Professor of mathematics at the University College in London, Augustus De Morgan had a formidable reputation as a mathematician, historian of mathematics, and bibliographer of the subject. He had many friends in the field, and was active in the scientific societies of the period. "In his own mathematical work, De Morgan made major contributions in the area of logic. …The crucial respect in which De Morgan sought to improve on the traditional logic of Aristotle was in the treatment of the logic of relations. …De Morgan's work on the logic of relations did not become part of the mainstream, due to the shortcomings of his notation. More successful in the reform of logic was George Boole, author of 'The Mathematical Analysis of Logic' and creator of a superior notation. Boole acknowledged his debt to De Morgan, whose name remains attached to two laws of Boolean algebra involving the negations of compound expressions." (R. V. Young, ed., 'Notable mathematicians', 1998). "De Morgan's greatest contribution to scientific knowledge undoubtedly lay in his logical researches; and the subsequent development of symbolic logic, with its powerful influences on both philosophy and technology, owes much to his fundamental work". (D.S.B.). See: Alice's exchange with the caterpillar in 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' (1865). Also see, William Hamilton, item 184 of this catalogue. Later issue(s) of this book are known, e.g. the more common one with the gilt price of 6/6 stamped at the foot of the spine and with Walton & Maberly's ads on the yellow endpapers (here yellow but blank), an Edmunds & Remnants binder's ticket, and a later publisher's catalogue. $3,600. 178. DUPIN, CHARLES (17841873). Développements de géométrie. Paris: Courcier, 1813. Charles Dupin, a student of Gaspard Monge the dedicatee of the present treatise, held the position of professor of mechanics at the Paris C.N.A.M. until 1854. "His aim is to find the simplest possible presentation of differential geometry, and to exhibit its most important applications. For that reason he always begins by using the methods of pure geometry in the sketchy way common to his predecessors, but then proceeds to reestablish the conclusions by sound analysis. Moreover, he has a vivid imagination and, I personally think, more originality than Monge, so that he gets some really novel results of first importance." (J. L. Coolidge 'Hist. geo. methods', 1940). D.S.B. 4: 257. Sotheran/Zeitlinger, vol. 1, no. 1123. $875.

Creation of the Calculus of Variations

179. EULER, LEONHARD (170783). Methodus inveniendi lineas curvas maximi minimve proprietate gaudentes. Lausanne and Geneva: M.M. Bousquet, 1744. "…written by Leonhard Euler and printed in 1744 (this treatise) created the calculus of variations as a separate branch of the calculus. In simplest terms, the calculus of variations determines the path between two points for which some integral (property) along the path is maximum or minimum. For example, the brachistochrone, i.e. the path of quickest descent from one given point to another under the force of gravity, is determined by the calculus of variations to a

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cycloid. Although many problems of this type had been solved earlier by others, it was this work of Euler that established the general theorems, thus making the calculus of variations a separate and important branch of the calculus." (J.D. Stanitz, 'Sources of Science and Technology', no. 57). Bibliotheca Mechanica, p. 104 which emphasizes the importance of the appendix for containing "…the first solution to the problem of the buckling of a column. This study also had considerable influence on the research done by Sophie Germain on plates." Grolier/Science 100, no. 28. Heralds of Science 111. Evans, Epochal Achievements in Science, no. 9. Milestones of Science 60. $7,500.

The First Modern Algebra Text in Its Original Manuscript Language 180. EULER, LEONHARD (170783). Vollständige anleitung zur algebra. St. Petersburg: Kayserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1771. Leonhard Euler was totally blind by 1766, but with the help of collaborators he was still able to produce many works. In the case of his classic algebra, he dictated (in German) "…to a young valet, a tailor by profession, the two volume 'Vollständige Anleitung zur Algebra' (1770), first published in Russian translation." (D.S.B.). The Russian translation appeared in 176869, and in its original manuscript language in 1770, both at St. Petersburg. The present edition is an entirely reset version with the errata corrected and would appear to be by the same publisher of the 1770 first German language edition. However, Rider's 'Biblio. of early modern algebra', p.115 gives "Lund" as the place in the imprint with no reference to St. Petersburg. It has been suggested that this book has a false imprint and was pirated by publishers in Lund, Sweden. (Sotheran/Zeitlinger, 2nd suppl., no. 1465 incorrectly calls this St. Petersburg 1771 a second issue of the 1770 edition.) Euler's 'Algebra' received translations into English, Dutch, Italian, and French. It "...greatly influenced nineteenth and twentieth century texts on the subject." (D.S.B.). "The first volume treats of determinate algebra. This contains one of the earliest attempts to place the fundamental processes on a scientific basis... This work also includes the proof of the binomial theorem for an unrestricted real index which is still known by Euler's name... The second volume of the algebra treats of indeterminate or Diophantine algebra. This contains the solutions of some of the problems proposed by Fermat, and which had hitherto remained unsolved." (W.W.R. Ball, 'Hist. math.', 1924, p.397). Lagrange commented to d'Alembert, citing the German version, that Euler's work on Diophantine equations was "excellent". Roller & Goodman I. 375. $1,400.

Posthumous Works of Galileo Published by His Famous Student, Viviani, Along with His Own Work

181. [GALILEI, GALILEO (15641642)]. VIVIANI, VINCENZO (16221703). Quinto libro degli. Elementi d'Euclide, ovvero scienza universale delle proporzioni spiegata colla dottrina del Galileo… Aggiuntevi cose varie, e del Galileo, e del Torricellli… Florence: Condotta, 1674(1676). "This work originates from a fragment of one of Galileo's works given to Viviani by Cardinal De'Medici and to which he added his own elaborations. In Galileo's fragment, some demonstrations of the fifth and sixth definitions of Euclid's fifth book were described in relation to proportional and nonproportional dimensions. In Viviani's opinion, Galileo had not been able to overcome all the difficulties and he undertook this work in which, on the basis of Galileo's demonstrations, he intended to summarise and reorder Euclid's entire fifth book. Galileo himself considered this possible in the fragment entitled 'Principio della Quinta Giornata del Galileo' which follows the 'Scienza Universale delle Proporzioni' in this 'book'. This fragment is followed by: 'Da aggiungersi all'altre quattro de Discorsi e Dimonstrazione Matematiche intorno alle nuove Scienze appartenenti all Meccanica et a' Movimenti locali'. Viviani obtained this piece of writing in manuscript from Torricelli. The interlocutors are the wellknown characters Salviati, Sagredo and

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Simplicio. The treatise proceeds with the definition, which is developed in two ways, and five propositions and a corollary that follows the first proposition. This is followed by several chapters of letters how much Galileo still had in his mind waiting to be developed… There are extremely helpful notes throughout the book containing a remarkable amount of personal biographical information about important characters in the life of Galileo." (Cinti 151, English translation). Also of importance is Viviani's original work here: "With the rigor and prolixity of the ancients, Viviani devoted an appendix to geometric problems, among which was one on the trisection of an angle, solved by the use of the cylindrical spiral or of a cycloid; another was the problem of duplicating the cube, solved by means of conics or of the cubic xy2=k." (D.S.B.). This 1676 reissue consists of 149 pages plus 3 unnumbered pages with title dated 1674 to which has been added the substantial new text, dated 1676 in the colophon, plus two engraved plates. Riccardi I. 625.2, and under Galileo, Riccardi I. 520.19. See: Stillman Drake, 'Galileo at work', (1978). $7,000.

Gibbs Sole Written Work on Multiple Algebra 182. GIBBS, J. WILLARD (18391903). On multiple algebra. Salem, Mass.: printed at the Salem Press, 1886. "The principal monument to these studies (abstract and general algebraic systems) in pure mathematics is to be found in his vicepresidential address 'On Multiple Algebra' before the American Association for the Advancement of Science (A.A.A.S.), Section on Mathematics and Astronomy, in 1886 at Buffalo. …The development of dyadic analysis undoubtedly forms Gibbs' most significant contribution to multiple algebra." (L. P. Wheeler, 'Josiah Willard Gibbs the history of a great mind', 1952). D.S.B. 5: 386393. See: T.L. Hankins, 'Sir William Rowan Hamilton', 1980, pp. 323325. $1,500.

The Roses of Grandi 183. GRANDI, GUIDO (16711742). Flores geometrici ex rhodonearum et cloeliarum curvarum descriptione resultantus. Florence: Typis Regiae Celsitudinis, 1728. The Italian mathematician, Guido Grandi, a student of Girolamo Saccheri, was professor of mathematics at Pisa. Grandi "…worked on the definition of curves. He devised the curves now known as the 'versiera', the 'rose', and the 'cliela', and his theory of curves also comprehended the means of finding the equations of curves of known form. …In his fascination with the study of curves, Grandi was influenced first by English scientist Isaac Newton. In 1728 he published his complete theory in 'Flores geometrica', an attempt (among other things) to define geometrically the curves that have the shapes of flowers, particularly multipetalled roses." (Random House Webster's Dictionary of Scientists, 1997). Prior to this treatise, Grandi published 'Florum geometricorum manipulus' in a 1723 issue of the 'Philosophical Transactions'. C. Boyer, 'Hist. anal. geo.', 1956, p. 185 remarks on this publication: "Grandi waxes eloquent on the role of geometry in the beauties of nature". "A key step in the mathematicizing of plant morphology was undertaken in the early eighteenth century by Guido Grandi, editor of Euclid and of the first Florentine edition of Galileo's works, who was an innovatory mathematician of curves." (M. Kemp, 'Seen/unseen', 2006, p. 437). D.S.B.5: 498500, esp. 499b. Boyer/Merzbach, 'A hist. math.', 1991, p. 437. J. Stillwell, 'Math. and its hist.', 2002, p. 109 with illus. Scarce. $2,750.

The Hamilton / De Morgan Controversy in Logic Signed by William Hamilton

184. HAMILTON, WILLIAM (17881856). 1. Testimonials in support of Sir William Hamilton's application for the Chair of Logic and Metaphysics, vacant in the University of Edinburgh. 1836. (Edinburgh, 1836). 2. Preparing for publication by Sir William Hamilton. I. Essay towards a new analytic of logical forms. II. Contributions towards a true history of Luther and Lutherans… (Edinburgh, 1846). 3. A letter to Augustus De Morgan, Esq. on his claim to an

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independent rediscovery of a new principle in the theory of syllogism… Subjoined, the whole previous correspondence and a postscript in answer to Professor De Morgan's "Statement". London & Edinburgh: Longman…, 1847. Here is documented Sir William Hamilton's controversy with De Morgan concerning his suggested improvement to Aristotelian logic in his 1833 lectures of 'quantification of the predicate'. On De Morgan's part, he went with the idea and published his 'Formal Logic' in 1847 (see item 177) and further memoirs on the subject in subsequent years. See: D.S.B. 4: 36a (De Morgan) and D.S.B. 6: 8083 (Hamilton). $875. 185. HAMILTON, WILLIAM ROWAN (180465). Elements of quaternions. London: Longmans, Green, 1866. Hamilton's 1853 'Lectures on quaternions' was not overly successful, (John Herschel only managed three of the seven lectures) so he undertook a new and what became an even larger monograph. It appeared posthumously in 1866 through his son's intersession. Despite Hamilton's considerable efforts, many came to better understand quaternions through the subsequent books of Tait (1867) and Tait & Kelland (1873). See: PMM 334. $1,500.

Integral Equation Theory, 'Hilbert Space', Coining of the Mathematical Term 'Spectrum'

186. HILBERT, DAVID (18621943). Grundzüge einer allgemeinen theorie der linearen integralgleichungen. Göttingen, 19040610. This important series of papers published separately over seven years at Göttingen was later collected as a book (Leipzig & Berlin, 1912). Morris Kline in his 'Mathematical Though from Ancient to Modern Times' (1972, pp.10601070) provides a detailed analysis of the many significant results published here. Summarizing, Kline writes: "…Hilbert's major results, first of all he established the general spectral theory for symmetric kernels K. Only twenty years earlier, it had required great mathematical efforts to prove the existence of the lowest oscillating frequency for a membrane. …Another noteworthy result due to Hilbert is that the development of a function in the eigenfunctions belonging to an integral equation of the second kind depends on the solvability of the corresponding integral equation of the first kind. …Here he inaugurated the spectral theory of bilinear symmetric forms." The D.S.B. comments: "the most important landmark ever set out in mathematics: the linear space method in analysis, with its geometrical language and its numerous applications, quite a few of which go back to Hilbert himself." See: C. Reid, 'Hilbert', 1970. $1,800.

The 'Erlanger Programm' 187. KLEIN, CHRISTIAN FELIX (18491925). Vergleichende betrachtungen über neure geometrische forschungen. Erlangen: A. Deichert, 1872. "Klein's Erlangen Program was his review of contemporary methods in geometry. It became, some 20 years later, the work from which a new generation of mathematicians came to see how geometry was being done and to appreciate the importance of group theory in the study of geometry. The reason for this delay, and also for its subsequent and continuing impact, was the novelty with which Klein reunited the disparate fields of geometry through his emphasis on the role of groups in geometric transformations." (Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics, Chap. 42).

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This 1872 pamphlet was distributed to the attendees of Klein's Inaugural Address on his appointment at the age of twentythree to ordinary professor of mathematics at Erlangen in the autumn of 1872. In 1893, Klein reprinted it in his 'Mathematische Annalen' where it gained wide attention. D.S.B. 7: 396400. I. GrattanGuinness, 'Norton Hist. Math. Sciences', 1998, pp. 547548. $3,850.

Original Lithographed Edition of Klein's Lectures On Function Theory and the Riemann Surface

188. KLEIN, CHRISTIAN FELIX (18491925). Einleitung in die geometrische funktionstheorie. Vorlesung gehalten in Leipzig wärrend des wintersemesters 1880/81. (Göttingen, 1892). The place and date of publication of these 188081 lectures is taken from Klein's forward which discusses the origin of this manuscript version of his lectures at Leipzig eleven years earlier. "Klein considered his work in function theory to be the summit of his work in mathematics. He owed some of his greatest successes to his development of Riemann's ideas and to the intimate alliance he forged between the latter and the conceptions of invariant theory, of number theory and algebra, of group theory, and of multidimensional geometry and the theory of differential equations, especially in his own fields, elliptic modular functions and automorphic functions. …It is through Klein that the Riemann surface is regarded as an indispensible component of function theory and not only as a valuable means of representing multivalued functions." (D.S.B). Shortly after these lectures, "…Klein provided a comprehensive account of his conception of the Riemann surface in 1882 in 'Riemanns Theorie de algebraischen Funktionen und ihre Integrale'." (D.S.B.). $1,250. 189. [KUMMER, E. E. (18109), KRONECKER, L. (182391), KIRCHHOFF, G. (182487), BRUNS, E. H. (18481919)]. An offprint and manuscript lectures.

(1). KRONECKER, LEOPOLD. Über schaaren von quadraischen formen. Berlin: Königlichen Akad. der Wissenschaften, 1874. This paper concerns singular families of quadratic forms. Kronecker and Camille Jordan engaged in a controversy concerning Kronecker's theorems about singular families and disciplinary ideals they epitomized. For more on Kronecker, see (3) below.

(2). KUMMER, E. E. Theorie der krume oberflächen und curven doppelten krumung. Sommer, 1881. (3). KRONECKER, LEOPOLD. Theorie der algebraischen gleichungen. 18801. (4). KIRCHHOFF, GUSTAV. Mechanik fester und flüssiger körper. Sommer 1881. (5). BRUNS, ERNST H. Theorie der differentialgleich. Sommer 1881.

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These manuscript lectures, captured by the American mathematician, Archibald L. Daniels, provide insights into the ways of thinking and the pedagogical influences of major German mathematicians of the period. With the presence at Berlin at midcentury of Weierstrass, Kronecker, and Kummer "…that city began to experience a new flowering of mathematics. …While Weierstrass and Kronecker offered the most recent results of their researches in their lectures, Kummer in his restricted himself …to laying firm foundations. …Kummer's Berlin lectures, always carefully prepared, covered analytic geometry, mechanics, the theory of surfaces, and number theory." (D.S.B. Kummer). Kronecker's greatest mathematical achievements lie in his efforts to unify arithmetic, algebra, and analysis, and most particularly in his work on elliptical functions. …Kronecker also introduced a number of formal refinements in algebra and in the theory of numbers…" (D.S.B. Kronecker). Kirchhoff, in collaboration with Robert Bunsen, laid the foundation of spectral analysis (1860). "His teaching had a considerable influence on the development in Germany of a flourishing school of theoretical physics during the first three decades of the twentieth century." (D.S.B.). In 1875 he accepted the chair of theoretical physics at Berlin. "The excellence of Kirchhoff as a teacher can be inferred from the printed text of his lectures… They set a standard for the teaching of classical theoretical physics in German universities, at a time when they were taking a leading position on the development of science." The mathematician/astronomer, E. H. Bruns, was professor of astronomy at Leipzig from 1882 and director of the observatory. Previously he had been at Berlin and had studied under Kummer and Weierstrass. $3,750.

A Clear Picture of Mathematical Analysis From G. B. Amici's Library 190. LACROIX, SYLVESTRE F. (17651843). Traite du calcul differentiel et du calcul integral. Paris: Courcier, 18101419. Two important editions of his major mathematical treatise were prepared by Lacroix. "The first volume of Lacroix's treatise on the calculus, in which he 'united all the scattered methods, harmonized them, developed them, and joined his own ideas to them,' appeared in 1797. It was followed by a second volume in 1789, and a third appeared in 1800 under the title 'Traite des differences et des series' [a second edition appeared in three volumes (1810, 1814, 1819)]. This monumental work constituted a clear picture of mathematical analysis, documented and completely up to date. While Lacroix followed Euler on many points, he incorporated the various advances made since the middle of the eighteenth century. The treatise is a very successful synthesis of the works of Euler, Lagrange, Laplace, Monge, Legendre, Poisson, Gauss, and Cauchy, whose writings are followed up to the year 1819. ...Lacroix's sense of history is evident in all his writings. The preface to the first volume of the second edition of the great 'Traite' (1810) is a model of the genre." (D.S.B.). In this second edition, Lacroix abandoned Lagrange's approach of treating the differential calculus strictly algebraically in favor of a treatment based on the limit. Sotheran/Zeitlinger, vol. 1, no. 23578. $1,000.

Among the Earliest to Provide Access to Laplace's 1812 Treatise 191. LACROIX, SYLVESTRE F. (17651843). Traité élémentaire du calcul des probabilités. Paris: Courcier, 1816. Protégé and lifelong friend of Monge, Lacroix had been recently appointed to the chair of mathematics at the College de France at the time of this publication. Stigler in his 'History of statistics' (1986, p. 157) notes that Lacroix's "…1816 'Traite'… contained a nice exposition of both the theory and methods…" of the GaussLaplace synthesis concerning least squares. 'Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics', p. 339 comments on Lacroix's book as being among the earliest to provide a

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more accessible treatment of Laplace's treatise of 1812. A second edition appeared in 1822. D.S.B. 7: 549551. $1,200.

Translation and Contributions by Babbage, Herschel, and Peaco*ck 192. LACROIX, SYLVESTRE F. (17651843). An elementary treatise on the differential and integral calculus. With an Appendix and notes. Cambridge: J. Deighton and Sons, 1816. An important book in the reforming of mathematics in England which had stagnated in the 18th century as a result of strict adherence to Newton's methods and isolation from the accomplishments of continental mathematicians. Lacroix's 'Traite', first published in 1802, was translated by Charles Babbage, Sir John Herschel, and George Peaco*ck, and it served to introduce "the refined analytical methods and the more perfect notation in use on the continent" (D.N.B. Babbage). Lacroix's appendix was replaced here by Herschel's original treatise, pages 465 to 579. Added extensive notes, pages 581 to 711, were written by Peaco*ck and Herschel. M. Kline, 'Math. thought from ancient to modern times' (1972), pp. 622623. Van Sinderen 6. Williams, 'Hist. computing tech.', pp. 161162. 'Origins of cyberspace', no. 20. Tomash Library on the History of Computing, L12. $1,100.

An Important Collection of Books and Papers by/on Lobachevsky and NonEuclidean Geometry

193. LOBACHEVSKY, NIKOLAI I. (17921856) and NONECLIDEAN GEOMETRY.

(1). LOBACHEVSKY. Géométrie imaginaire. In: Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik. Hrsg. v. A. L. Crelle. Vol. 17, pp. 285320, plate II. Berlin: G. Reimer, 1837. (2). LOBACHEVSKY. Geometrische untersuchungen zur theorie der parallelinien. Berlin: Fincke, 1840. (3). LOBACHEVSKY. Geometrische untersuchungen zur theorie der parallellinien. Berlin: Fincke, 1840. (2) (4). LOBACHEVSKY. Geometrische untersuchungen zur theorie der parallellinien. Berlin: Mayer & Müller, 1887. (5). LOBACHEVSKY. Pangeometrie oder die auf einer allgemeinen und strengen theorie der parallelen gegründeten haupsätze der geometrie. In: Archiv für wissenschaftliche kunde von Russland, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 397456. Berlin: G. Reimer, 1858.

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(6). LOBACHEVSKY. Études géométriques sur la theorie des paralléles… Traduit de l'Allemand par J. Hoüel… Suivi d'un extrait de la correspondence de Gauss et de Schumacher. Paris: GauthierVillars, 1866. (7). LOBACHEVSKY. Pangeometria o sunto di geometria fondata sopra una teoria generale e rigorosa delle parallele. In: Giornale di matermatiche…, vol. 5, pp. 273320. Includes: G. Battaglini's 'Sulla geometria immaginaria di Lobatschewsky', pp. 217231. Naples: B. Pellerano, 1867. (8). LOBACHEVSKY. Geomerical researches on the theory of parallels. Translated from

the original by George Bruce Halsted. Austin, 1891. ('Scientiae Baccalaureus', Vol. 1, February, 1891. No. 3). (9). LOBACHEVSKY. Geometrical researches on the theory of parallels. Austin, n.d. (1892). (10). LOBACHEVSKY. Zwei geometrische abhandlungen aus dem Russischen uebersetzt, mit anmerkungen und mit einer biographie des verfassers von Friedrich Engel. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 18981899. (11). LOBACHEVSKY. Pangeometrie. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgeselleschaft, n.d. (1912). (12). LOBACHEVSKY. Geometrical researches on the theory of parallels. La Salle, IL:

Open Court, 1914.

(13). LOBACHEVSKY. (In Cyrillic). Polnoe subranie sochinenii. T. I. Sochineniia po

geometrii. Glav. redaktor V. F. Kagan. Moscow: Gos. izdvo tekhn. teoret. litry, 1946.

(14). BALTZER, RICHARD (181887). Die elemente der mathematik. Leipzig: G. Hirzel,

186567. (15). HOÜEL, JULES (182386). Essai critique sur les principes fondamentaux de la géométrie élémentaire. Paris: GauthierVillars, 1867. (16). FRISCHAUF, JOHANNES (18371924). Elemente der absoluten geometrie. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1876. Bound with: KLEIN, FELIX (18491925). Vorträge über ausgewählte fragen der elementatgeometrie. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1895.

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(17). HALSTED, GEORGE BRUCE (18531922). Our belief in axioms and the new spaces. In: Scientiae Baccalaureus, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 1119, October 1890. Rolla, MO: Missouri School of Mines, 1890. (18). VASILIEV, ALEKSANDR V. (18531929). Nicolái Ivánovich Lobachévsky. Address pronounced at the commemorative meeting of the Imperial University of Kasán, October 22, 1893. Trans. from the Russian, with a Preface, by Dr. George Bruce Halsted. Austin, TX: The Neomon, 1894. (19). VASILIEV, ALEKSANDR V. (18531929). Nikolaj Iwanowitsch Lobatschefskij. Rede, gehalten bei de feierlichen versammlung der Kaiserlichen Universität Kasan am 22. Oktober 1893. Aus dem Russischen übersetzt von Professor Friedrich Engel Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1895. (20). HALSTED, GEORGE BRUCE (18531922). Gauss and the nonEuclidean geometry. Offprint: Science, N.S., Vol. VII, pp. 842846, Nov. 30, 1900. (21). MANNING, HENRY PARKER. (18591956). NonEuclidean geometry. Boston: Ginn & Co., 1901. (22). POINCARÉ, HENRI (18541912). Science and hypothesis. Authorized translation by George Bruce Halsted with a special Preface by M. Poincaré and an Introduction by Professor Josiah Royce. New York: Science Press, 1905. (23). BONOLA, ROBERTO (18741911). (In Cyrillic): NonEuclidean geometry. Critical historical study of its development. Supplemented with notes of Professor A. B. Vasiliev 'On the relation of Lobachevsky to the theory of parallel lines to 1826'. And applications of the author. St. Petersburg: Typography Association, 1910. (24). SOMMERVILLE, DUNCAN M. Y. (18791934). Bibliography of nonEuclidean geometry. London: Harrison & Sons, 1911. (25). SACCHERI, GIROLAMO ((16671733). Euclides vindicatus. Edited and translated by George Bruce Halsted. Chicago and London: Open Court, 1920. (26). KAGAN, V. F. (18691953). N. Lobachevsky and his contribution to science. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1957. (27). PICCARD, SOPHIE (190490). Lobatchevsky, grand mathematicien Russe sie vie, son oeuvre. Alencon (Orne), n.d. (1957colophon).

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This collection of books and papers brings together many of the key publishing events in the development of nonEuclidean geometry, especially from the point of view of Nikolai I. Lobachevsky's contributions. The story is a slow developing one. Though Lobachevsky's publications in Russian in the 'Kazan Messenger' (182930) are not here, his very rare 1840 German monograph (2) is as the star of this collection. It is from this book that Bolyai learned in 1848 of Lobachevsky's achievement. Also present is the very rare original reprint version of Halsted's translation of it into English in 1891 (8). As pointed out in chap. 39 of 'Landmark writings in Western mathematics' (2005), the Hoüel translation into French, (6), of Lobachevsky's 1840 text (2) was the version Eugenio Beltrami (18351900) read. Beltrami's reliance on this account, assessed as "clearer and … more influential", emphasizes its importance in the development of nonEuclidean geometry. The first nonRussian appearance of a Lobachevsky publication was (1) in Crelle's Journal in Berlin. An unfavorable review of his Kazan publications for republication by the Academy in St. Petersburg led to his bypassing their journals and his submission of 'Géométrie imaginaire' (1) to Crelle's. Concerning Lobachevsky's 1840 book, it is not well appreciated that two anastatic reprints of it appeared in the late 1880s. The 1887 version (4) published by Mayer & Müller, is well known, copies of which were Heralds of Science 115 and P.M.M. Exhibition Catalogue, no. 558 ("The above edition is listed because the earlier editions of 1829 and 1840 proved unprocurable." their note). However, there is a littleknown anastatic printing (3) without any new imprint that replicates the 1840 completely and is easily confused with it [see notes in (3) above for the subtle differences]. This raises the possibility that the recorded copies of the very rare true 1840 first edition are conflated with copies of the 1840 anastatic facsimile. Lobachevsky's last work, 'Pangeometrie', his final exposition on nonEuclidean geometry, was dictated in French while blind. The original French appeared in 1856, and in Russian in 1855 and again in 1856. A German translation (5) was published in a Berlin journal dedicated to Russian science. By 1867 an Italian translation (7) appeared. A second German edition with an added appendix by Liebmann (11) was popularly published. The 1867 French translation of Lobachevsky's 1840 book (6) has already been noted. An English translation came decades later when the American mathematician, George Bruce Halsted, published it in an obscure journal edited by seniors at the University of Missouri, Rolla (8; and thereafter 9 & 12). At the end of the century, Friedrich Engel published his still indispensible version of Lobachevsky's geometrical works (10) in two volumes at Leipzig. It remains to comment on a few further supporting items in the collection: (13) contains 'Geometrical researches on the theory of parallels' and 'On the principles of geometry' edited by V. F. Kagan (14) The 1867 second edition of volume two of Baltzer's influential 'Elemente' here he first treated the work of Lobachevsky and Bolyai. Halsted lauds Baltzer in his translation of Bolyai's 'Appendix' as the first to draw attention to Bolyai in his 'excellent' 'Elemente de Mathematik' noting that Hoüel prepared his 1866 French translation of Lobachevsky 'incited' by Baltzer's 'rare erudition'. (15) Hoüel's important early critical commentary, which according to B. A. Rosenfeld, ' Hist. nonEuclidean geo.' (1988) contains "…an exposition of the basic ideas of Lobachevsky geometry." (16) by Frischauf: "Hoüel's labours must have urged J. Frischauf to perform the service for Germany which the former had rendered to France." (Bonola, 1911). Therein the work of Lobachevsky, Bolyai, Riemann, and Helmholtz is presented. (17) A very rare copy of issue two, of four only, of the journal 'Scientiae Baccalaureus' contains a relevant paper by Halsted, the translator into English of Lobachevsky, Bolyai, and Saccheri. (21) is the first textbook in English on nonEuclidean geometry. On (22), the first edition of Poincaré's influential 'Science and hypothesis' was published at Paris in 1902, thereafter two translations into English appeared in 1905, one at London, and the present American version by Halsted with an introduction by the Harvard philosopher, Josiah Royce. Of interest here is 'Part II. Space', chapters IIIV concerning geometries, especially nonEuclidean. $68,500.

The Fountainhead of the Subjective Interpretation of Probability 194. LAPLACE, PIERRE SIMON (17491827). Essai philosophique sur les probabilités. Paris: Courcier, 1814.

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The first bookfrom edition of Laplace's 'Essai' was published earlier in 1814 in quarto format. Here the text has been augmented and issued as an octavo book. It "…has certainly had a longer life and almost certainly a large number of readers than any of Laplace's writings. …Inevitably, Laplace's technical writings have come to have the same sort of relation to the later development of the discipline of probability that, for example, Newton's 'Principia mathematica' had to the later science of mechanics." (D.S.B.). See: Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics, pp. 337338 for detailed contents of the book. F. Cajori, 'Hist. math.', 1919, p. 263. $1,350. 195. LYONS, ISRAEL (173975). A treatise of fluxions. London: W. Bowyer, 1758. Israel Lyons, a child prodigy, was patronised by Sir Joseph Banks and Robert Smith. To the latter he dedicated his first book (written at the age 19), 'A treatise of fluxions'. He taught botany at Oxford (176263), was a computer to the Board of Longitude (176467), and astronomer to Captain Phipps' polar expedition (1773). Lyons was preparing a complete edition of Halley’s works when his career was cut short by measles. A 13page list of subscribers appears in the preliminaries, there he also notes his reliance on Cotes' approach. Charles Hutton in his 'Mathematical Dictionary' comments: "a respectable mathematician and botanist... In, 1758, he obtained much celebrity by publishing 'A Treatise on Fluxions' ... he received frequent presents from the Board of Longitude for his own inventions." F. Cajori, 'History of ...fluxions in Great Britain...', 1919, pp. 201202. Sotheran/Zeitlinger, vol.1, no. 11147. Taylor II. 628. $900.

"…a model of rigor…"

196. MACLAURIN, COLIN (16981746). A treatise of fluxions. Edinburgh: T. W. and T. Ruddimans, 1742 Maclaurin, professor of mathematics at Edinburgh, "…provided a vigorous foundation for the method of fluxions based on a limit concept drawn from Archimedian classical geometry. He went on to demonstrate that the method so founded would support the entire received structure if fluxions and the calculus, and to make advances that were taken up by continental analysts. …Maclaurin's work was cited with admiration by Lagrange, Euler, Clairaut, d'Alembert, Laplace, Legendre Lacroix, and Gauss." (Landmark Writings in Western Math., chap. 10). The D.S.B. comments: "Maclaurin's 'Treatise of Fluxions' (1742) has been described as the earliest logical and systematic publication of the Newtonian methods. It stood as a model of rigor until the appearance of Cauchy's 'Cours d'analyse' in 1821." (see item 173). F. Cajori, 'A hist. of the conceptions of limits and fluxions in Great Britain', 1919, chap. VI. Not in Babson/Newton or Wallis/Newton. $4,800. 197. MACLAURIN, COLIN (16981746). A treatise of algebra, in three parts. …To which is added an Appendix, concerning the general properties of geometrical lines. London: A. Millar and J. Nourse, 1748. The posthumous work on algebra by the important Scottish mathematician, Colin Maclaurin "…is an elementary treatise dealing principally with equations and with the application of algebra to geometry; it is a model of clear and terse exposition, and was in vogue as a Cambridge textbook for more than half a century." (D.N.B.). The 65page Latin appendix, 'De linearum geometricarum proprietatibus generalibus', was "reprinted from a manuscript written and corrected in Maclaurin's own hand." (D.S.B.). D.T. Whiteside has shown that part of Maclaurin's algebra treatise "…had been written by 1726, for his Edinburgh course, shaped as commentary on Newton's 'Arithmetica Universalis', and reproducing some sections verbatim." (Wallis, 'Brit. math., p. 59). "Important for the use of algebra in the resolution of geometrical problems." (C. Boyer, 'Hist. anal.

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geo.', 1956). A sixth edition appeared in 1796 and a French translation in 1753. Not in Babson/Newton or Wallis/Newton. $1,250.

The EulerMascheroni Constant Important to Number Theory 198. MASCHERONI, LORENZO (17501800). Adnotationes ad calculum integralem Euleri. Ticini: P. Galeati, 1790. An important and rare book in which the Italian mathematician, Lorenzo Mascheroni, calculates the Euler constant, also known as the EulerMascheroni constant, to 32 decimal places (see p. 23 of text). Euler published a paper in 1735 on the constant, but he was only able to calculate it to 6 decimal places. "This number links exponentials and logarithms to number theory… …it plays roles in such diverse areas as infinite series, products, probability, and definite integral representations." (C. A. Pickover, 'The Math Book', 2009, p. 172). A 'pars altera' appeared in 1792, though it is not usually found with, nor anticipated by, this 1790 treatise. D.S.B. 9: 156. Poggendorff II. 7172. Riccardi I. 132.6. $1,250.

Important Contribution to Mathematical Methods Barycentric Calculus 199. MÖBIUS, AUGUST F. (17901868). Der barycentrische calcul: ein neues hülfsmittel zur analytischen behandlung der geometrie. Leipzig: J. A. Barth, 1827. "German mathematician August Ferdinand Möbius, famous for his onesided loop called the Möbius strip, also made a major contribution to mathematics with his barycentric calculus, a geometrical method for defining a point as the center of gravity of certain points to which coefficients or weights are ascribed. …The new algebraic tools, developed by Möbius in his 1827 book…, have since turned out to have wide application. This classic book also discusses related topics in analytic geometry such as projective transformations." (C.A. Pickover, 'The Math Book', 2009, p. 222). D.S.B. 9: 429431. $2,000.

Includes the Only Extensive EightFigure Table of Trigonometrical Logarithms 200. NEWTON, JOHN (162278). Trigonometria Britanica: or, the doctrine of triangles, in two books. London: R. & W. Leybourn, 1658. "This is the only extensive eightfigure table (of trigonometrical logarithms) that has been published; and is remarkable on account of the logarithms of the differences, instead of the differences, being given." (Sotheran/Zeitlinger, 2nd suppl., no. 2091). John Newton was an educator and textbook writer who set up a mathematical school at Ross in Herefordshire where he was Rector after Restoration. Taylor I. 205. 'Biblio. Books Exhibited Napier Tercentenary' (1915), no. 55. $3,400.

The Father of Pure Mathematics in America James Mills Peirce's Copy

201. PEIRCE, BENJAMIN (180980). Linear associative algebra. Washington City: n.p., 1870.

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"Benjamin Peirce's 'Linear Associative Algebra' was a pioneer work in American mathematics and in modern abstract algebra. Supported by his belief in the correspondence between human ideas and the physical universe, Peirce adopted in this work the symbolical approach to algebra of Peaco*ck and De Morgan, joined in Hamilton's rejection of Peaco*ck's permanence principle, created over 150 new algebras, worked with linear algebras with complex coefficients, divisors of zero, and indeterminate division operations, and laid the foundations for a study of algebraic structures. Because of 'Linear Associative Algebra', therefore, Benjamin Peirce deserves recognition, not only a founding father of American mathematics, but also as a founding father of modern abstract algebra." (H. M. Pycior, "Benjamin Peirce's 'Linear Associative Algebra'," ISIS, vol. 70, pp. 537551, 1979). This key work first appeared in 100 lithographed copies whose publication was provided for by Julius E. Hilgard (182591), Peirce's assistant at the Geodetic Survey and later its superintendent. "The work was performed by persons connected with the Coast Survey Office in otherwise unoccupied hours, or in their own leisure time, being in fact in great part a labor of love. …The copy was written by a lady who understood not one word of the investigation, but who by great attention succeeded in making a copy far more free from errors than any printers proof ever is…" (I. GrattanGuinness, "Benjamin Peirce's 'Linear Associative Algebra' (1870): New light on its preparation and 'publication', Annals of Science, vol. 54, pp. 597606, 1997). At the end of the book, Peirce thanks Hilgard "…for the opportunity for issuing these nice lithographic copies…" The year after Peirce's death, his son, Charles, added footnotes to the treatise and had it published in the 'American Journal of Mathematics' (1881, vol. 4, pp. 97215) and as a Van Nostrand book in 1882. [Curiously though it is understood the 1870 and 1881 are identical except for Charles' notes, a casual check has turned up some differences in the equations.] Benjamin Peirce's introduction 'To my friends' was removed. It begins: "his work has been the pleasantest mathematical effort of my life." Peirce's very first line of text is famous: "Mathematics is the science which draws necessary conclusions." Added: Two books by James M. Peirce: (1) Mathematical tables chiefly to four figures. First series. Boston, 1879. Presentation Copy with J. M. Peirce's holograph inscription to Benjamin Peirce's former student, one of the first Ph.D.'s in mathematics at Harvard who later became professor of mathematics, W. E. Byerly. (2). The elements of logarithms. Boston, 1874. $5,500.

Poincaré's Important Doctoral Thesis in Mathematics 202. POINCARÉ, HENRI (18541912). Sur les proprietés des fonctions définies par les equations aux differences partielles. Paris: GauthierVillars, 1879. "The development of mathematics in the nineteenth century began under the shadow of a giant, Carl Friedrich Gauss; it ended with the domination by a genius of similar magnitude, Henri Poincaré. …Poincaré remains the most important figure in the theory of differential equations…" (D.S.B.). It is with this subject Poincaré began his mathematical career. On August 1, 1879 he defended his doctoral dissertation "On the properties of functions defined by partial differential equations (not on methods of solution, but on existence theorems), which led to one of his most celebrated contributions to mathematics the properties of automorphic functions; in fact, he was the virtual founder of the theory of these functions." (Boyer/Merzbach, 'Hist. math.', 1991, p. 601). $1,200.

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Poisson's Distribution The Law of Large Numbers 203. POISSON, SIMÉON DENIS (17811840). Recherches sur la probabilité des jugements. Paris: Bachelier, 1837. Poisson's best known work is his treatise on probability. "Toward the end of his life, Poisson turned his attention to other subjects, producing two works of considerable repute. The first, 'Recherches…' (1837), is significant for the author's participation in an important contemporary debate (concerning) the legitimacy of the application of the calculus to areas relating to the moral order… Poisson was bold enough to take pen in hand to defend the universality of the probabilistic thesis and to demonstrate the conformability to the order of nature of the regularities that the calculus of probability, without recourse to hidden causes, reveals when things are subjected to a great number of observations. It is to Poisson that we owe the term 'law of large numbers'. He improved Laplace's work by relating it explicitly to Jacob Bernoulli's fundamental theorem and by showing that the invariance in the prior probabilities of mutually exclusive events is not a necessary condition for calculating the approximate probabilities. It is also from Poisson that we derive the problem that Laplace had passed over, the case of great asymmetry between opposite events, such that the prior probability of either event is very small. …It was many years before the importance of Poisson distribution was recognized." (D.S.B.). S. Stigler, 'Hist. of statistics', 1986, pp. 183194. $2,250.

Riemann's Hypothesis and the Zeta Function 204. RIEMANN, BERNHARD (182666). Über die anzahl der primzahlen unter einer gegebenen gröfse. In: Monatsbericht der Königlichen Preufs. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. November 1859. Berlin: Königsl. Akad der Wissenschaften, 1859. The 'Monthly Report of the Berlin Academy of Science' for November 1859 leads with Riemann's famous paper, 'On the Number of Prime Numbers Less Than a Given Magnitude', his only paper on number theory. "If I were to awaken after having slept for 500 years, my first question would be: Has the Riemann hypothesis been proven" David Hilbert shortly before his death in 1943. It remains one of the unsolved problems (no. 8) on Hilbert's famous list of 23 problems presented to the International Congress of Mathematicians in 1900. Stephen Hawking in his 'God created the integers' (2007) provides an English translation of Riemann's paper with commentary (excerpt): "Riemann died at far too early an age. We can only ask whether he would have rigorously proved his eponymous hypothesis had he been granted the biblical life span of three score and ten years. Perhaps we will live ling enough to see Riemann's hypothesis proved. If we are fortunate for that to happen, we shouldn't be surprised if the roots of that proof lies in Riemann's epochal paper itself." "The proof of Riemann's hypothesis would have profound consequences for the theory of prime numbers and in our understanding of the properties of complex numbers. …Today more than 11,000 volunteers around the world are working on the Riemann hypothesis, using a distributed computer software package Zetagrid.net to search for the series of the Riemann zeta function. More than 1 billion zeros for the zeta function are calculated every day." (C. A. Pickover, 'The math book', 2009). PMM 293b its importance noted. See: K. Sabbagh, 'The Riemann hypothesis the greatest unsolved problem in mathematics', 2002. $7,000. 205. RIEMANN, BERNHARD (182666). Ein betrag zu den untersuchungen über dis bewegung eines flüssigen gleichartigen ellipsoides. Göttingen: Dieterischen Buchhandlung, 1861. "Continuing work of Dirichlet, in 1861 Riemann studied the motion of a liquid mass under its own gravity, within a varying ellipsoidal surface…, a problem that had been the subject of many

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works. One of Riemann's classic results deals with the stability of an ellipsoid rotating around a principal axis under equatorial disturbances." (D.S.B.). $1,200. The Science of Gunnery, Fluxions, Controversy, and Other Writings of Benjamin Robins 206. ROBINS, BENJAMIN (170751). Mathematical tracts… Vol. I. Containing his new principles of gunnery, with several subsequent discourses on the same subject, the greatest part never before printed. …Vol. II. Containing his discourse on the methods of fluxions, and of prime and ultimate ratios, with other miscellaneous pieces… London: J. Nourse, 1761. With his 'New principles of gunnery', 1742, Robins became the real founder of the science of gunnery. Therein Robins introduced the ballistic pendulum which he employed to determine the muzzle velocity of bullets. That advance, and others, caused Euler to issue his German translation in 1745. Robins' second volume contains an important work on fluxions which first appeared in 1735. Commenting on the original edition, the Newton/Babson Catalogue has: "In this little book, Robins was the first to give an exceedingly clear explanation of Newton's theories of fluxions." The polemics on the controversy and other published and unpublished articles complete the set. Biblio. mechanica, pp. 279280. F. Cajori, 'Hist. concepts, limits and fluxions in Gr. Brit.', 1919, chap. 4 & pp. 202206. $1,500.

Early English Book of Logarithms 207. ROE, NATHANIEL (15961656). Tabulae logarithmicae, or two tables of logarithmes. London: P. Stephens and C. Meredith, 1633. "This volume comprises two tables, one of the logarithms of natural numbers and the other of logarithms of the sine and tangent functions. The latter is an unusual table in that each degree is divided into 100 parts (each being thirtysix seconds of arc). It is only the second such table printed (the first by Henry Briggs and Henry Gellibrand in the same year, but it was to fourteen decimal places where this table is to ten places). …The Wingate essay is on the use of the tables in problems of plane and spherical triangles, the latter containing information on astronomy, geography and navigation…" (Tomash Lib. R103). Books Exhibited at the Napier Tercentenary (1914), no. 53. Taylor II. 157. $3,500.

Important Nineteenth Century Treatise on the Calculus of Variations 208. SARRUS, PIERRE F. (17981861). Recherches sur le calcul des variations. Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1846. Sarrus, who was born and died in South Africa, was professor of analysis at Strasbourg, and later dean. His 1845 prize essay for the French Academy of Sciences solved the problem of extending the method of variations for determining the maxima of multiple integrals. This accomplishment, later simplified by Cauchy, is regarded as the most significant original contribution to the calculus of variations from 1800 to 1860. F. Cajori, 'Hist. math', 1919, pp. 369370. $1,250.

Manuscript and Offprints Document the Achievements of an Important Nineteenth Century Mathematician

209. SCHWARZ, HERMANN A. (18431921).

(1). Differentialgleichen. Winter 7980. (2). Maxima and minima in geomet. behind. Winter Sem. 18789.

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These two important volumes document the work of Hermann A. Schwarz, professor of mathematics at the University of Göttingen from 1875, and successor to Weierstrass at Berlin from 18921917. "Schwarz… was the leading mathematician in Berlin in the period following Kronecker, Kummer, and Weierstrass. He may be said to represent the link between these great mathematicians and the generation active in Germany in the first third of the twentieth century, a group that he greatly influenced." (D.S.B.). The papers (Volume Two) here cover his most productive period and include his work on conformal mapping, minimal surfaces, rigorous proof that the sphere possesses a smaller area than any other body of the same volume. Leading off this collection is the first edition of "…his most important work, a festshrift for Weierstrass' seventieth birthday, (in which) Schwarz set himself the task of completely answering the question of whether a given minimal surface really yields a minimal area. Aside from the achievement itself, which contains the first complete treatment of the second variation in a multiple integral, this work introduced methods that immediately became extremely fruitful." (D.S.B.). Houssner completed his Ph.D. at Göttingen under Schering and Schwarz in 1888. In 1902 he became professor of mathematics at Jena. Among his students were Rudolf Carnap, Wolfgang Haack, Friedrich Ringleb. Volume One contains from this period the manuscript transcription of Schwarz' lectures, complete with numerous diagrams, on differential equations and on maxima/minima problems in geometry. Schwarz "…did great work in partial differential equations and analysis…" (M. Kline, 'Math. thought from ancient to modern times', 1972). F. Cajori, 'Hist. math.' (1919), pp. 431432. $7,500.

"Robert Hooke bought a copy in 1675…"

210. SHAKERLEY, JEREMY (162653?). Tabulae Britannicae: the British tables wherein is contained logistical arithemtick, the doctrine of the sphere, the ecclesiasticall accompt, the equation and reduction of time… London R. & W. Leybourn, for Robert Boydell, 1653. This very uncommon work by a native of Carre, Lancashire includes logarithmic tables and astronomical tables based on the precepts and observations of Jeremiah Horrox (161741). Shakerley "…was one of the brilliant young northcountry encouraged by his neighbour Christopher Towneley, with whom he resided during 164850 and there also met Jonas Moore. …His own observations included that of the transit of Mercury, of the comet of 1652, and of a solar eclipse, the last two in Surat…" (Taylor I. 233). According to Taylor I. : "One of the books recommended to seamen by Timothy Gadbury. Robert Hooke bought a copy in 1675 for 12s. from Moses Pitt." Macclesfield Sale, no. 1874. $4,800.

The First Application of the NewtonRaphson Process to the Solution of Transcendental Equations

211. SIMPSON, THOMAS (171061). Essays on several curious and useful; subjects, in speculative and mix'd mathematics. London: J. Nourse, 1740.

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D.E. Smith in his history of mathematics describes Simpson as "that strange mathematical genius". F. Cajori in his history notes: "The first application of the NewtonRaphson process to the solution of transcendental equations was made by Thomas Simpson in his 'Essays…', London, 1740." The volume contains 13 essays on topics in astronomy, mechanics, and mathematics. D.S.B. 12: 443445. Biblio. mechanica, p. 297. Wallis/Newton 150.3. Not in Babson/Newton. $1,250.

A Distinguished Copy of the Foundation of Synthetic Geometry 212. STEINER, JACOB (17961863). Systematische entwicklung der abhängigkeit geometricsher gestalten. Vol. 1 (all published). Berlin: G. Fincke, 1832. An outstanding association copy of the first book by the great geometer, Jacob Steiner, a treatise which "…exerted an exceptionally stimulating influence on geometric research… Having set himself the task of reforming geometry, Steiner sought to discover simple principles from which many seemingly unrelated theorems in the subject could be deduced in a natural way. He formulated his plan in the preface to 'Systematische Entwicklung…"(D.S.B.). Jacob Steiner, the most noted of the Swiss geometers of the 19th century, gave the first complete discussion of the projective relations between rows, pencils, etc. and laid the foundation for the subsequent development of pure geometry. For the present at least, he may be said to have closed the theory of conic sections, of corresponding figures in threedimensional space, and of surfaces of the second order, and hence there opens with him the period of the special study of curves and surfaces of higher order." (David E. Smith, 'Hist. math.', vol. 2, 1925). M. Kline, 'Math. thought from ancient to modern times', 1972, pp. 846848. $3,600.

Stewart's Theorems in Geometry: "…among the most beautiful…" John Playfair 213. STEWART, MATTHEW (171785). Some general theorems of considerable use in the higher parts of mathematics. Edinburgh: printed by W. Sands, A. Murray, and J. Cochran; sold by W. Sands, and by J. and P. Knapton, 1746. The Scottish mathematician, Matthew Stewart (171785), a student of Robert Simson and Colin Maclaurin, established his reputation "...overnight by the publication of the 'General Theorems'. John Playfair, himself a scientist of distinction, claimed that Stewart's results were 'among the most beautiful, as well as the most general propositions known in the whole compass of geometry... The unity which prevails among them is a proof that a single though extensive view guided Mr. Stewart in the discovery of them all'. ...Simson's influence is obvious throughout the work. Several of Stewart's theorems are in fact porisms, although he refrains from calling them by that name..." (D.S.B.). Charles Hutton, the 18th century English mathematician (see item 108), also thought highly of Stewart's treatise. "Including his discussion of the properties of the circle and straight line, treated by transversals and involution." (Sotheran/Zeitlinger, vol. 1, no. 4601). Stewart succeeded to Maclaurin's chair of mathematics at Edinburgh. F. Cajori, 'Hist. math.', 1919, p. 277. W.W.R. Ball, 'Short hist. math.', 1908, p. 388. $1,600.

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Important in the Early Pedagogy of the Calculus 214. VARIGNON, PIERRE (16541722). Eclaircissem*ns sur l'analyse des infiniment petit*. Paris: Rollin, 1725. "Varignon's intense pedagogical activity, extending over more than thirty years, constituted his chief contribution to the progress of science and was the source of his fame. By inaugurating a chair devoted specifically to mathematics at the College Mazarin, he joined the handful of men who were then teaching advanced mathematics; and it is in this context that his work was of great importance. ...In working with the model of falling bodies, Varignon encountered difficulties in obtaining acceleration as a second derivative. This problem had the advantage, however, of obliging him to reassess the importance of the new differential and integral calculus. His acceptance of the new procedures occurred between 1692 and 1695, and he was among those who gave the most favorable reception to the publication of L'Hospital's 'Analyse des infiniment petit*' in 1696. The 'Eclaircissem*ns' is composed of critical notes that Varignon, as a professor, considered necessary in presenting L'Hospital's pioneering work to young mathematicians further evidence of his constructive role in the movement to transform the operations used in mathematics." (D.S.B.). Sotheran/Zeitlinger, vol.1, no.5040. $1,500.

Second Appearances of Wallis' Magnum Opus on Mechanics and His Book Containing the Germ of the Differential Calculus

Includes the Introduction of the Symbol for Infinity and an Interpolated Value for ππππ

215. WALLIS, JOHN (16161703). Opera mathematica. Volumen primum. Oxford: Theatro Sheldoniano, 1693. This grand volume published at Oxford University is the first of three volumes containing the mathematical works (theological writings and miscellany are found in the last volume) of the most influential English mathematician before Newton, John Wallis, Savilian professor of geometry at Oxford (16491703). His most important mathematical work, 'Arithmetica infinitorum' (1656), and the one that made him famous, has its second appearance here. Similarly his masterly, 'Mechanica, sive du motu tractatus geometricus' (three parts, 166971) has its second appearance in print in this massive volume. Also of considerable importance is Wallis' 'De sectionibus conicis' (1655): "…the earliest systematic algebraic treatment of the conic sections to appear in print." (C. Boyer, 'Hist. anal. geo.', 1956). The 'Arithmetica infinitorum', which is extremely rare in the original edition, "…was the most substantial single work on mathematics yet to appear in England. It introduced the symbol ∞ to represent infinity, the germ of the differential calculus, and by an impressive use of interpolation (the word was Wallis' invention), the value for π." ('Random House Webster's Dict. of Scientists', 1997). "The 'Arithmetica infinitorum' exerted a singularly important effect on Newton when he studied it in the winter of 16641665." (D.S.B.). Dr. E. Weil in his Catalogue 32 (no. 279) wrote of the original edition of the 'Mechanica': "This is Wallis' magnum opus, containing not only a clear anticipation of the Integral Calculus but also a statement of the Second Law of Motion (to be more carefully propounded years later by Newton)." Also included here: 'De cycloide tractatus', 'Tractatus epistolaris, ad D. Hugenium', 'Eclipsis solaris observatio', 'Mathesis universalis', 'Oratio inauguralis', and 'Adversus M. Meibomii De Proportionibus Dialogum'. See detailed accounts in J.F. Scott, 'The math. work of John Wallis', 2nd ed., N.Y., 1981; Biblio. Mechanica, pp. 34445; Babson/Newton Cat., no. 184. $2,750.

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PHOTOGRAPHY

"By the chemical snare of Daguerre" Lemercier Presentation Copy from Chevreul to d'Omalius d'Halloy

216. [DAGUERRE, LOUIS J. M. (17871851)]. LEMERCIER, LOUIS J. N. (17711840). Sur la découverte de l'ingénieux peintre du Diorama. In: Institut Royal de France. Séance publique annuelle de Cinq Académies, du Jeudi 2 Mai 1839, preside par M. Chevreul, Président. Paris: Didot, 1839. Little known and among the earliest notices of Daguerre's new sensational advance in photography is Lermercier's (the French dramatist and poet) long poem, 'Lampélie et Daguerre', on the subject presented as a lecture before the Institut at the . Here it is published with a short introductory essay on pages 21 through 37. For 'The Arcades Project' of Walter Benjamin a small section of the poem is available in English:

As, menaced by the birdcatcher's pitiless nets, The meadowlark, rousing the muses of morning, Flutters and foolishly comes to alight on a Larkmirror, reef of its dalliances, So Lampélie's (= sunlight's) flight is cut short By the chemical snare of Daguerre. The face of a crystal, convex or concave, Will reduce or enlarge every object it marks. Its fine, lucid rays, through the depths of the trap, Catch the aspect of places in rapid inscription: The image imprisoned within the glass plate, Preserved from all threatening contact ,

On Chevreul and photography, see plate 269 of Gernsheim. It reproduces Chevreul's participation in the first photointerview in August 1886. $975. 216a. HUNT, ROBERT (180787). Researches on light: an examination of all the phenomena connected with the chemical and molecular changes produced by the influence of the solar rays; embracing all the known photographic processes, and new discoveries in the art. London: Longman..., 1844. An early issue, possibly the earliest, having the April 1844 publisher's catalog (Hunt's preface is dated March 11, 1844) and no errata slip. The slip does appear in copies with a September 1844 publisher's catalog. "Robert Hunt was librarian and keeper of mining records at the Museum of Practical Geology and professor of mechanical engineering at the Royal School of Mines, London. He carried on numerous photographic and photochemical experiments and he was one of the founders of the London Photographic Society. ...The discovery by Robert Hunt (1844) that iron sulphate (vitriol) was suitable for the development of light pictures on iodide, bromide, and chloride of silver was of great importance for the future. It is well known that it was just this iron sulphate developer which brought 'wet collodion' photography, invented several years later, to such efficiency." (J.M.

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Eder, 'Hist. photography', 1945, pp. 325326). Gernsheim Incunabula No. 668. Epstean Coll., no.214. Bolton I. 547. $750.

Daguerreotype Process Announced in an American Text Presentation Copy

217. WEBSTER, JOHN W. (17931850). A manual of chemistry. Boston: Marsh, Capen, Lyon and Webb, 1839. John White Webster succeeded John Gorham at Harvard as Erving Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy in 1827. He brought out his 'Manual of chemistry' in 1826 based on Brande's 'Manual'. By the third edition, Webster having considerably changed his textbook, no longer refers to Brande in his title. Of importance to the history of photography is the first appearance in an American text of the Daguerreotype process. Webster's account is found on page 507 of the Addenda. In 1850, Webster was tried for the sensational murder of George Parkman, M.D. to whom he had owed money. Incriminated by parts of a human skeleton found in his laboratory in the Harvard Medical School, Webster was hanged on August 30, 1850 after one of the most famous trials in American history. Writing in 1936 in his history of Harvard, Samuel Eliot Morison called it "…the gravest scandal in the history of the University." For a good summary see: R. J. Wolfe, 'Tarnished Idol' (2001), pp. 235242. Bolton I. 907. Cole 1359. Smith Coll., p. 503. Not in Neville. $1,500.

PHYSICS

The Dedication Copy 218. AIRY, GEORGE BIDDELL (180192). A treatise on magnetism. London: Macmillan, 1870. Airy was appointed Plumian professor and director of the observatory at Cambridge University in 1828, and he accepted the post of Astronomer Royal in 1835 which he held until his retirement in 1881. Though he was responsible for the efficient running of the Royal Greenwich Observatory, no great science issued from that institution under his long tenure, "…but he made great science possible." (D.S.B.). On the dedication leaf signed by Airy, he wrote in part: "…I venture to inscribe this work to my honoured friend Sir John Frederick Herschel, Baronet, K. H., one of a small band who by their private efforts established in the University the form of mathematics then and now accepted in the scientific world." This copy is No. 45 with facsimile plate between pp. 8/9 of Sidney Ross' 'The catalog of the Herschel Library', 2001. Ross' small gilt leather bookplate is on the front pastedown. $2,000.

Early Key Work on Galvanism in Its Original State 219. ALDINI, JEAN (17621834). Essai theorique et experimental sur le galvanisme. Paris: Founier Fils, An XII 1804.

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The nephew of Luigi Galvani, Jean Aldini, was his uncle's champion in the controversy over Galvani's "animal electricity" and Volta's "galvanic current". Aldini's best known work was his 'Essai', which appeared in two volumes, as well as in a single quarto volume, both in 1804. Dedicated to Napoleon, Aldini reported on his experiments which established the existence of electrical forces within living tissue, on his attempt to determine the velocity of an electric current across the harbor of Calais, and on his "…dramatic experiments (which) involved motion in the anatomical members of a justexecuted murderer and induced muscular contraction in dissected parts of sheep, oxen, and chickens." (D.S.B.). Wheeler Gift Cat. 660. Ronalds, p.7. Mottelay, pp. 304306. Gartrell 587. Bakken, p. 124. Fulton & Cushing 27. $2,250.

Rare, Original Edition of a Dutch Treatise on Electrotherapy 220. BARNEVELD, WILLEM VAN (17471826). Geneeskundige electriciteit. Amsterdam: J.B. Elwe and D.M. Langveld, 1785. A rare (3 copies only in U.S.) and handsome treatise on medical electricity by the Dutch apothecary, Willem van Barneveld. The engraved title (reproduced, p. 2 of Gartrell) and the folding plates are particularly fine and interesting. Plate one illustrates a seated woman in period dress as part of an experiment involving a plate electrical machine. There are accessories on the table in the foreground (reproduced, fig. 17 of M. B. Schiffer, 'Draw the lightning down', 2003); high in the paneled room are two busts: Nollet and Franklin. In plate 3 hangs a portrait of Priestley between the windows. Barneveld gives accounts of 50 case histories in which electricity was applied, and he describes the electrical machines used. The more commonly encountered German translation appeared in 1787. Gartrell 23. Bakken, p. 38. Ronalds, p. 37 (not in lib.). Mottelay, p. 326. & Licht 57 German translation. Not in Wheeler, Ekelöf, or Rowbottom & Susskind. $1,500.

An Early Text of Analytical Mechanics 221. BARTALONI, DOMENICO (175098). Meccanica sublime dimonstrata coll'algebra. Naples: G. Raimondi, 1765. Riccardi notes this book by Domenico Bartaloni (whose dates as given by Riccardi imply the book was published when the author was only 15!) as among the first treatises on analytical mechanics. Bartaloni refers glowingly in his introduction to Euler. It is to Euler that we owe the foundation of this approach as presented in his 'Mechanica; sive, motus scientia analytice exposita' (St. Petersburg, 1736). Bartaloni's text is divided into two books: 1. rectilinear motion and 2. curvilinear motion; each of these considers motion first in vacuum and then with moderate resistance. An analytical approach is followed throughout. Poggendorff II.111 (under Bartoloni): born in Sienna in 1750 where he received his doctorate. Riccardi I. 89.1. Roller & Goodman I.82. Not in Biblio. mechanica. $1,250.

Three Electrical Works by Beccaria 222. BECCARIA, GIAMBATTISTA (171681). Elettricismo artificiale. (Torino,1772). Bound with: Della eletriciatá terrestre atmosferica a cielo sereno. (Torino, 1775). Bound with: Nuovi sperimenti… per confermare, ed estendere la meccanica del fuoco elettrico. Torino: Reale Stamperia, 1780. These important final works by the major Italian contributor to 18th century electrical experimentation and theory include Beccaria's exposition of Franklin's onefluid theory and his treatment of atmospheric electricity. The second volume, not always found with the first, was clearly intended as a continuation since the paragraph numbers are continuous. D.S.B. 1: 546548. Wheeler

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435 bis. Mottelay, p. 207. Gartrell 34 & 33. Bakken, p. 40. Ronalds, p. 41. Ekelöf 359, 360, & 362. Neville I.102. $2,000.

With the Atlas of Plates in its Appealing Original Landscape Folio Binding

223. BECQUEREL, ANTOINE C. (17881878). Traité experimental de l'électicité et du magnétisme. Paris: Didot, 183440. At 3,400 pages of text and 45 plates, Antoine C. Becquerel's work on a great variety of topics in electricity and magnetism was the largest of its kind to that date. The impressive atlas is often missing, and when found, it is more likely to be in large octavo format rather than landscape folio with the plates and maps unfolded as here. On the author see: D.S.B. 1: 557558 and Ekelöf 938. Mottelay, p. 271. Wheeler 882. Ronalds, p. 44. Bakken, p. 138. Gartrell 616. $1,850.

Henri Becquerel's Doctoral Thesis 224. BECQUEREL, HENRI. (18521908). Recherches sur les specters d'absorption dans les cristaux. (Paris: GauthierVillars, 1888 colophon). This is the offprint form of the published doctoral dissertation as it appeared in its journal version (also printed as a separate quarto thesis as defended before the Faculty of Sciences of Paris) by the 1903 Nobel laureate in physics (jointly with the Curies). "Becquerel's early research was almost exclusively optical. His first extensive investigations (18751882) dealt with the rotation of planepolarized light by magnetic fields. He turned next to infrared spectra (1883)… He then studied the absorption of light in crystals (18861888), particularly its dependence on the plane of polarization of the incident light and the direction of its propagation through the crystal." (D.S.B.). Of interest are Becquerel's observations on the optical behavior of uranium salts (pp. 6266) especially concerning phosphorescence, in the light of his discovery of radioactivity in the next decade. H. F. Norman Lib. Cat. 156 presentation copy of the original thesis. $750.

Fundamental Treatise on Hydrodynamics and Kinetic Theory 225. BERNOULLI, DANIEL (170082). Hydrodynamica, sive de viribus et motibus fluidorum commentarii. Strasbourg: J. Reinhold, 1738. "The greatest work of Daniel Bernoulli, son of Johann, and one of the truly great books of the 18th century was 'Hydrodynamica' printed in 1738. In this work, Bernoulli bases the motion of fluid on the conservation of actual and potential (i.e. kinetic and potential energy) and Section XII introduces the simultaneous consideration of pressure and velocity, thus leading to the famous Bernoulli's Equation now used in hydraulics and fluid dynamics. The book also makes preliminary observations about the convertibility of heat to work, treats the flow of compressible fluids, applies the momentum principle to fluid motion, and in Section X develops the important kinetic theory of gases in which gas pressure is related to the mean kinetic energy of the random motion of the gas particles." (J. D. Stanitz, 'Sources of science and technology', no. 54). PMM 179n. Rouse & Ince, 'Hist. hydraulics', pp. 95ff. Biblio. mechanica, pp. 3435. C. A. Pickover, 'Archimedes to Hawking' (2008), pp. 125134. D.S.B. 2: 3940. Neville I.130. $10,000.

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Gravitation and the Ether 226. BERNOULLI, JAKOB (16541705). Dissertatio de gravitate aetheris. Amsterdam: Han. Wetsten, 1683. The author of the celebrated posthumous treatise on probability, 'Ars conjectandi', Jakob Bernoulli, developed in the present work "the theory that seeks to explain natural phenomena by assuming collisions between particles of the ether. …There are extensive discussions about the center point of oscillation, which had been determined correctly for the first time by Huygens in his 'Horologium oscillatorium' (1673), but this was strongly debated by some of the members of the Cartesian school." (D.S.B.). "It contains an explanation and an enlargement of Descartes' theory of vortices and attempts to explain the cause of gravitation and capillarity. …some of Newton's great conceptions on aether are anticipated." (Babson/Newton, 1st suppl., p.6). $3,200.

The Compendious Leiden Edition of Borelli's Three Companion Treatises: Muscle Mechanics, Percussion of Solids, & Capillarity

227. BORELLI, GIOVANNI A. (160879). De motu animalium. Leyden: Boutesteyn, Gaesbeeck, Vivie & Vander Aa, 1685. Bound with:De vi percussionis. Leyden: Vander Aa, 1686. Bound with: De motionibus naturalibus, a gravitate pendentibus. Leyden: Vander Aa, 1686. The three masterworks of Giovanni Borelli jointly issued in a handsome and massive Leyden edition consists of the second edition enlarged and corrected of his classic 'De motu animalium' (first ed., Rome, 168081: GM 762; Grolier/Science 100, no. 13; Heralds of Science 190; Lilly Notable Medical Books, p.91), and the second editions of his physics treatises, 'De vi percussionis' (first ed., Bologna, 1667) and 'De motionibus naturalibus' (first ed., Bologna 1670). The joint engraved and printed titles to the physics books make clear that these works were considered as essential introductions to 'De motu animalium' ('Introductiones & Illustrationes PhysicoMathematicae apprime necessariae ad opus ejus intelligendum...'). Often found separately, it is evident from the present volume, in contemporary Dutch vellum, that these three treatises in their second editions were intended as companion works. Borelli, a student of Galileo, was professor at Pisa and Rome, and a member of the Academia del Cimento. 'De motu animalium', his major treatise on muscle mechanics, was largely based on Galileo's mechanics. "He began with the center of motion, the muscle, and then applied its forces to the linkage of bones with the same exactness as forces applied to levers. This analysis evolved into a system describing an animal's entire mobility... He held that nerve stimulation was related to contraction and swelling of muscle and that some chemical process was associated with it. He also believed that heartbeat was a simple muscular contraction and that the circulatory system was hydraulic in principle." (Heralds of Science). Borelli's 'De vi percussionis' contains the discovery of the law of percussion of solids. In 'De motionibus naturalibus' the account of Borelli's experiments on capillarity performed while a member of the Academia del Cimento is the first on the subject. Wellcome II.204 1685 'De motu animalium' independently bound of the two 1686 physics books. Similarly for N.L.M. (17th C.) nos. 1576 &1579. $2,750.

Foundation Work of Photometry 228. BOUGUER, PIERRE (16981758). Essai d'optique, sur la gradation de la lumiere. Paris: C. Jombert, 1729.

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A classic of optics, the founding work of photometry containing Bouguer's Law: "In a medium of uniform transparency of light remaining in a collimated beam is an exponential function of the length of its path in the medium." (D.S.B.). In 1760, J.H. Lambert in his 'Photometria' restated the law and consequently it is more commonly known as Lambert's Law. This law is found in the second part of Bouguer's 'Essai', while in the first part "...his method of comparing the relative brightness of two lights by using the eye as a null indicator (i.e. to establish the equality of brightness of two adjacent surfaces) and applying the law of inverse squares." (H.F. Norman Lib. Cat. 283). 'Dict. of Named Effects & Laws' (1961), pp. 25 & 130. Brit. Opt. Assoc. Cat., p. 26. $3,750.

Bouguer's Peru Expedition and the Figure of the Earth 230. BOUGUER, PIERRE (16981758). La figure de la terre determinée par les observations de Messieurs Bouguer, & de la Condamine… Paris: Jombert, 1749. The handsomely printed account of the French Académie Royale's "…celebrated expedition to Peru …to measure an arc of the meridian near the equator" (D.S.B.) was prepared by Bouguer after his return in 1744. Both a travelogue and a scientific account of experiments, investigations, and researches, "Bouguer's work on (the Peru) expedition …was of high quality." (D.S.B.). A detailed chapter (pp. 95167), with facsimiles of plates on this expedition, is in J.R. Smith's 'From plane to spheroid' (1986). Todhunter, 'Hist. fig. earth', 1873, p. 363. Gore, 'Biblio. geodesy', p. 343. $2,750.

The Wave Nature of Electrons 231. BROGLIE, LOUIS DE (18921987). Ondes et mouvements. Paris: GauthierVillars, 1926. PMM 417: "The simple atoms of Dalton had already been modified before 1926 by the discoveries of radioactivity and the splitting of the atom; but now the Duc de Broglie in 'Waves and Movements' proposed an even more radical amendment. Light had been shown to behave as though it were waves and also as though it were particles; matter had been always supposed to be made up of particles, but perhaps it shared the duality of light. Perhaps indeed there might be circ*mstances in which matter might behave as though it were a wave." Confirmation followed quickly with Davisson and Germer’s demonstration (see item 233) of electron diffraction, a wave phenomenon, in 1927. De Broglie was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1929 "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons." Ekelöf Cat. 1979. H.F. Norman Lib. Cat. 348. See: 'En Francais dans text', no. 353. $1,500.

Ownership Links Two Nobel Laureates 232. BROGLIE, LOUIS DE (189219870 and LEON BRILLOUIN (18891969). Selected papers on wave mechanics. London & Glasgow: Blackie, 1928. The eight papers here were originally published from 1922 to 1927. For these English translations, the authors have revised them and added notes. Louis De Broglie was awarded the 1929 Nobel Prize in physics. Wilson is noted in PMM 386. $750.

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Louis De Broglie Acknowledges Clinton Davisson's Experimental Confirmation of the Wave Nature of Electrons

233. BROGLIE, MAURICE (18751960) and LOUIS DE BROGLIE (18921987). Introduction a la physique des rayons X et gamma. Paris: GauthierVillars, 1928. Davisson confirmed in 1927 Louis De Broglie's hypothesis of 1924/26 that particles can behave like waves (see item 231) an important development in quantum theory. The signed presentation on the Broglies' summary treatise of 1928 not only links Louis De Broglie, the 1929 Nobel laureate in physics, to Davisson, who shared the 1937 Nobel Prize in physics, but in Appendix I, written when the book was in the proof stage, the Broglies acknowledge Davisson's 1927 experimental confirmation of the wave nature of electrons. Davisson and Germer's work is discussed in PMM 417 (Louis De Broglie). H. Kragh, 'Quantum generations', 1999, p. 130. B. Pullman, 'The atom in the history of human thought', 1998, p. 275. Parkinson, 'Breakthroughs', p. 505. Offered with: DAVISSON, C. and L. H. GERMER. Diffraction of electrons by a crystal of nickel. In: Phys. Rev., Dec. 1927, pp. 705740. Complete vol. 30, 2nd series, JulyDec. 1927. "Preliminary announcement of the main results contained in this paper was made in 'Nature' for April 16, 1927. In the present article we give a more complete account of the experiments and additional data." $7,500.

Physics for Young Ladies 234. BRYAN, MARGARET (fl. 17971816). Lectures on natural philosophy… With an appendix: containing, a great number and variety of astronomical and geographical problems: also some useful tables, and a comprehensive vocabulary. London: Printed by T. Danson; and sold for the Authoress by G. Kearsley & J. Carpenter, 1806. The school mistress and natural philosopher, Margaret Bryan of Blackheath achieved success as a science writer with her incomparable book on astronomy (1797), also based on classes for young ladies. It was praised by the mathematician, Charles Hutton [who is here listed as a subscriber (see item 108), as are the chemist F. Accum and the Astronomer Royal, N. Maskelyne, among others]. "This praise encouraged Bryan to publish (the present work)…" (Ogilvie, 'Women in science', 1986). Phillips, 'The scientific lady', 1990, pp. 176178. Wheeler Gift Cat. 674 cited for the two lectures on electricity and one on magnetism. $1,750.

Pioneer of Plastic Surgery Publishes an Important Treatise on Electricity and Galvanism 235. CARPUE, JOSEPH C. (17641846). An introduction to electricity and galvanism; with cases, shewing their effects in the cure of diseases: to which is added, a description of Mr. Cuthbertson’s plate electrical machine. London: A. Phillips..., 1803. GM 1989: "One of the first works in the English language entirely devoted to medical electricity." In addition to the medical interest, Carpue’s book describes and illustrates (plates 1 & 2) John Cuthbertson’s third pattern glass plate electrical machine. This presentation (Carpue was the first to name this generator after Cuthbertson) is nearly identical to that later published by Cuthbertson in his book 'Practical electricity' (1807). This type of electrical machine, probably

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designed in London in 1797 or 1798, remained popular well into the 19th century. Carpue is best known for his contribution to plastic surgery, GM 5737. W. D. Hackmann, 'Electricity from glass', 1978, pp. 162164. Mottelay, p.375 (with description of Carpue’s experiments on an executed murderer). Wheeler Gift Cat. 646. Ronalds, p.96. Gartrell 654. Bakken, p.159. Wheatland, p.46. Wellcome II.304. Not in Ekelöf. $1,300.

Cauchy Considers Optics 236. CAUCHY, AUGUSTIN LOUIS (17891857). Mémoire sur la theorie de lumiére. Paris: De Bure, 1830. In his work on differential equations, Cauchy "…was concerned with linear partial (differential) equations with constant coefficients, which he encountered in hydrodynamics, elasticity, and optics. The outstanding device of this research was the Fourier transform. …In 1826 the residue calculus is introduced as a new device… In 1830, when Cauchy went into optics, this formula (from applying residue calculus to a general solution of linear differential equations) was applied to partial differential equations… The formula, obtained in polar coordinates, is involved and not quite clear; its proof is not available because the of which the 1830 paper is a brief extract, seems never to have been published and possibly is lost." (D.S.B. 3: 143b & 144a). $1,400.

The First Systematic Treatise on Thermodynamics 237. CLAUSIUS, RUDOLF (182288). Abhandlungen über die mechanische wärmetheorie. Braunschweig: F. Vieweg, 186467. "A German theoretical physicist, Clausius studied mathematics and physics at the universities of Berlin and Halle, receiving his Ph.D. in 1847. ...In 1879 he was awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society. Considered the founder of modern thermodynamics, Clausius’ papers on thermodynamics, kinetic theory, and electricity provide an excellent source for the study of the development of his ideas. Clausius introduced the concept of entropy, which was equivalent to William Thomson’s concept of energy degradation... This law, the inevitable increase in entropy, is second in importance only to the first law of thermodynamics." (Biblio. mechanica, pp. 7576). Evans Epochal Achievements in the History of Science, no. 42 1857 paper reprinted here. Stanitz, Sources of Science and Technology, no. 77. D.S.B. 3: 303311. See: PMM 285 & 323. $975. 238. COTES, ROGER (16821716). Hydrostatical and pneumatical lectures. London: for the Editor, 1738. "These lectures were among the earliest of their kind given in England. The appendix contains the only English translation of Newton's 'Scale of Degrees of Heat', his law of cooling. Also a paper by Halley and two by Dr. Jurin." (Biblio. mechanica, pp. 7980). The editor of Cotes posthumous lectures was Robert Smith (16891768) who published his large and authoritative, 'A compleat system of opticks' in the same year. Babson/Newton, no. 343. $1,250.

Including a Very Early Description of Rowley's Orrery 239. DESAGULIERS, JOHN THEOPHILUS (16831744). A system of experimental philosophy, prov'd by mechanicks. ...To which is added, Sir Isaac Newton's colours: The description of the condensing engine, with its apparatus: and Rowley's horary... London: B. Creake, J. Sackfield, and W. Mears, 1719.

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This is the complete authorized version by the noted experimentalist and Newtonian, John Desaguliers. He "...can be seen as one of the key figures in the changes that took place in the business of lecturing on natural philosophy. ...His work for the Royal Society, his translations, his textbooks, his trials of steam engines and his interest in water supply all illustrate the range of the involvement he had with contemporary scientific and technological developments." (Morton & Wess, 'Public & private science the King George III collection', 1993, p. 54). These lectures, based largely on those of Savilian professor at Oxford, John Keill, under whom Desaguliers had studied, had appeared in an unauthorized version in 1717, and again in 1719 with the author's tacit approval expressed in a new preface. The errata were specially prepared by Desaguliers, "...that those who buy it should find it any wise imperfect..." Preface, and the ten plates were added. He did not publish his own lectures until 1734. Of some importance is the very early description (pp. 194201) of the second orrery made by John Rowley in 1715 for the East India Company. A précis of Newton's optical work is included. Wallis 202.811 noting, as here, some copies with the additional t.p. for Wallis 202.81. Not in Babson or Gray. D.S.B. 4: 4346. King, 'Geared to the stars', 1978, pp. 154156 & portrait, p. 170. Wheeler Gift 249. Sotheran/Zeitlinger, 3rd suppl., no. 1387. $2,400.

Presentation Copy to the English Physicist, Sir George Gabriel Stokes 240. DRAPER, JOHN W. (181182). Scientific memoirs, being experimental contributions to a knowledge of radiant energy. New York: Harper & Bros., 1878. A significant presentation copy of a volume which collects much of John William Draper's wide range of pioneering researches in early photography, photochemistry, spectroscopy, heat, and photomicroscopy. On page 341 appear six photomicrographs (as woodcuts) which were first published to illustrate his 'Human physiology' of 1856. In 1875, Draper was awarded the Rumford Medal of the American Academy of Art and Sciences, and in 1876, he was elected the first president of the American Chemical Society. See: D.S.B. 4: 181183. Sotheran/Zeitlinger, 2nd suppl., no. 485. $750.

Early, WellIllustrated Treatise on Snow Crystals 241. ENGELMAN, JAN (170852). Het regt gebruik der natuurbeschouwingen, geschetst in eene verhandeling over de sneeuw figuuren. Haarlem: I. van der Vinne, 1747. Among the early treatises on snow and snow crystals is that by Jan Engelman, M. D. published at Haarlem in 1747 (2nd ed., 1771) with 450 magnified depictions of snow flakes. The tables present weather data from 1742 and extensive comparisons of thermometers by Peter van Musschenbroek. In addition, the findings of Leeuwenhoek, Boerhaave, Hales, Bartholin, Maupertuis, Nieuwentyd, Scheuscher and others are noted. Bieren de Haan 83.2. $2,250.

Important Optics, Magnetism, and More 242. EULER, LEONHARD (170783). Opuscula varii argumenti. IIIIII. Berlin: Ambr. Haude & Jo. Carol. Spener, 17465051.

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At mideighteen century the arguments for the waveparticle duality theories of light truly got underway. Euler's important treatise on the subject, 'Nova theoria lucis et colorum' (in vol. one, pp. 169244), was "probably the most important single publication of the period… (In it) …he attacked the projectile theory and propounded a vibration theory of light." (G. N. Cantor, 'Optics after Newton' 1983, p. 50, and see pp. 117122 for details). "The significance of Euler's theory can be gauged partly from the fact that it was so widely discussed. …It is remarkable that a relatively short treatise published as part of a collection of articles on a range of subjects created such resonance…" (C. Hakfoort, 'Optics in the age of Euler', 1995). Altogether there are 13 tracts in three volumes covering astronomy,mathematics, physics, and electricity and magnetism. Wheeler Gift Ca. 366 and Ekelöf 268 cite the third volume for Euler's 1744 prize essay (Royal Academy of Sciences, Paris). Ekelöf comments: "…contains a paper on magnetism. Euler adheres to the Cartesian doctrine of small magnetic particles, which flow in pores in iron and continue outside. He gives a theory of the magnetic properties of iron and of the compass needle." D.S.B. 4: 46 7484. Houzeau & Lancaster 3482. Sotheran/Zeitlinger, 1st suppl., no. 2242. $5,400.

First Issue of Faraday's Electrical Researches 242a. FARADAY, MICHAEL (17911867). Experimental researches in electricity. London: Richard and John Edward Taylor, 1839. Not always appreciated the 1839 volume of Faraday's electrical papers published in the 'Philosophical Transactions' from 1831 to 1838 appeared as an independent book of what would over the next sixteen years become a set of three volumes. This 1839 volume in its original first issue does not have 'Vol. 1' on its spine and has the 13 May 1839 ads. The later issue of 'Vol. 1' has different blindstamping on its spine matching that used for volume 2 (1844) and volume 3 (1855). This same pattern is true for the much later Quaritch facsimile edition. Included here is Faraday's epochal paper on electric generation based on electromagnetic induction. Faraday "…thus discovered and remains the means of generating nearly all the electricity in use today". (Heralds of Science 64). $900.

Five Early Offprints by the 1938 Nobel Laureate in Physics 243. FERMI, ENRICO (190154). (1). Sui momenti magnetici dei nuclei atomici. Rome, 1930. (2). Sul calcolo degli spettri degli ioni. Rome, 1930. (3). L'effetto Raman nelle molecole é nei cristalli. Rome, 1932. (4). With Emilio Segré: Sulla teoria delle strutture iperfini. Rome, 1933. (5). With Edoardo Amaldi: Le orbite ∞ s degli elementi. Rome, 1934. The first to occupy the chair of theoretical physics newly created at the University of Rome in 1927 was the young Enrico Fermi. Eleven years later, Fermi left Europe for the United States having just accepted the 1938 Nobel Prize in physics "for his disclosure of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons." Fermi presented his classic paper on nuclear magnetism (1) to the Academy on January, 1930. He showed the measurements of the nuclear magnetic moment necessary for the analysis of superfine structures [continued in (4)]. The application of Fermi statistics to ion spectra and the Raman Effect on molecules and crystals are the subjects of (2) and (3). In (5) Fermi statistics are applied to the study of elements. D.S.B. 4: 576583. $1,250.

Foremost American Scientist of the Eighteenth Century 244. FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN (170690). The complete works, in philosophy, politics, and morals of the late Benjamin Franklin, now first collected and arranged: with memoirs of his early life, written by himself. London: J. Johnson…, 1806.

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This valuable publication, published in 1806 as a set, is the first to collect Franklin's autobiography, his landmark treatise on electricity, memoirs on natural philosophy, writings on politics and moral subjects, his papers on American subjects, and numerous letters. Wheeler Gift Cat. 675. Ronalds, p. 182. Bakken, p. 200. $2,000.

Gauss's Classic Monograph on Terrestrial Magnetism Bound with Seven Related Publications

245. GAUSS, CARL F. (17771855). a. Intensitas vis magneticae terrestris ad mensuram absolutam revocata. Göttingen: Dieterich, 1833. b. WEBER, WILHELM E. (180491). Ueber die anwendung der magnetischen induction auf messung der inclination mit dem magnetometer. Göttingen: Dieterich, 1853. c. WEBER, W. Bestimmung der rechtwinkeligen componenten der erdmagnetischen kraft in Göttingen. Göttingen: Dietrich, 1855. d. LLOYD, HUMPHREY (180081). Account of the magnetical observatory of Dublin, and of the instruments and methods of observation employed there. Dublin: Univ. Press, 1842. e. LLOYD, H. Supplement to a paper on the mutual action of permanent magnets, considered chiefly in reference to their best relative position in an observatory. Dublin: Royal Irish Acad., 1841. f. LLOYD, H. On the determination of the intensity of the earth's magnetic force in absolute measure. Dublin: Univ. Press, 1843. g. LLOYD, H. Results of observations made at the magnetical observatory of Dublin, during the years 184043. First series. Magnetic declination. Dublin: Royal Irish Acad., 1849. h. LLOYD, H. On the mean results of observations. Dublin: Royal Irish Acad., 1849. "Gauss's most important geomagnetic work was done in collaboration with the physicist Wilhelm Weber… Their first collaborative work, 'Intensitas vis magneticae terrestris', is an account of the measurement of magnetic force, containing the first systematic use of absolute units (distance, mass, time) to measure a nonmechanical quantity." (H. F. Norman Lib. Cat. 881). Lloyd, "…an expert in optics and a leader in the British program to map the earth's magnetic field" (D.S.B.), was assigned by the British Association to "…the important job of drawing up instructions for the observers and teaching the officers in charge the use of the instruments. Lloyd's own observatory at Trinity College, which had been constructed under his supervision in 1837, served as a model for the other stations and received the results of their observations." (D.S.B). A rich volume of mid19th century works on terrestrial magnetism. Gauss Wheeler Gift Cat. 867; Ronalds, p. 194; Gartrell 735; Bakken, p. 205. $3,500.

Rare Set of Plates of Snow Crystals 246. GLAISHER, JAMES (18091903). Snow crystals, observed by James Glaisher, Esq., F.R.S., from February 8th to March 10th, 1855. n.p., 1855.

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The British mineralogist, James Glaisher, was the first president of the Royal Microscopical Society from 18651869. Earlier at the Microscopical Society of London's 'The Wonders of the Microscope' Soirée on 11 April 1855, Glaisher contributed a special exhibition of his photographs of snow crystals. In the two months prior to the show, Glaisher, with the aid of his wife Cecilia, prepared wood engravings of his microscopic observations of snowflakes. A published collection of them is offered here. When the R.M.S.'s Charter was granted in 1866, one of Glaisher's magnified snow crystals was chosen as the Society's official emblem. For an illustration of that example see: G. L'e Turner, 'God bless the microscope!' (1989), fig. 19, and the reproduction of the emblem on the cover and title page of the book. The history of the subject snow crystals in print began with Olaus Magnus' 1555 'Historia de gentibus septen trionalibus' which contained the earliest diagrams of snowflakes. Kepler's 1611 'De nive sexangula' initiated the scientific study of snow crystals with an attempt to account for their formation and hexagonal shape. Further contributions were made by Descartes, Hooke and others which included a number of efforts to categorize snow crystal types. Glaisher himself read before the Greenwich Natural History Society in 1855 a paper published afterward in the Journal of the Microscopical Society (vol. 3, pp. 179185, 1855) entitled 'Snow Crystals in 1855'. He wrote: "The snow crystals which fell during the late severe weather, attracted such general attention, that I ventured to announce a paper on the subject for the present evening. Never do I recollect such an infinity of crystals as have lately fallen beneath my observation. …The forms were so varied, that it seemed scarcely possible for continuous observations to exhaust them all. …On February 8 (the beginning date of the present collection), the day of the first heavy and continued snow, I secured drawings of some of the most remarkable figures which fell in numbers throughout the day… …I sketched at this time, and were viewed through a lens of somewhat less power than a Coddington." Glaisher continues, recounting specific observations on Feb. 13, 16, 17, & 21 with a discussion of his optical methods. Though Glaisher made the observational rough sketches, his wife, Cecilia Louisa Glaisher (182892), a photographer, redrew them for publication. The twentieth century brought detailed scientific studies of crystal formation, i.e. the work of Arrhenius, Koch, and especially Ukichiro Nakaya. On Glaisher, see D.S.B. 5: 413 as well as further discussion in Turner. 'Beauty of another order', p. 103 cites Glaisher's 1855 photomicrographic work on snow crystals. Also see the third edition (1865) of Beale's 'How to work with the microscope', page vi. See cover illustration. $3,500.

Grove's Law of Energy 247. GROVE, WILLIAM R. (181196). On the correlation of physical forces: being the substance of a course of lectures delivered in the London Institution, in the year 1843. London: Printed by Order of the Managers of the London Institution, at the Request of the Proprietors, 1846. "Of the utmost rarity. Sir William Robert Grove, professor of experimental philosophy at the London Institution, invented the Grove battery and anticipated electric lighting. In his lectures delivered in 1843 he was the first to set out clearly the nature of heat, light, electricity, motion forces convertible into any other, and he formulated the Law of Energy, preceding Robert Mayer and Helmholtz (1847). It was he who fully realized the importance of Joule's paper: 'On the calorific effects of magnetoelectricity, and on the mechanical value of heat', which was published in 1843. The full formulation of the Law of Energy is to be found in the 1846 first edition of the 'Correlation of Physical Forces'." (Dr. E. Weil, Catalogue 19, c.1951). Six editions appeared in the nineteenth century. Unusual to be found in a contemporary binding. D.S.B. 5: 559561. J. D. Stanitz, 'Sources of science and technology', no. 73. Bibliotheca Mechanica, p.150. Wheeler Gift Cat. 1096. Ronalds, p.214. $1,300.

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Elucidation of Aepinus Theory of Electricity and Magnetism 248. HAÜY, RENE J. (17431822). Exposition raisonee de la theorie de l'electricite et du magnetisme, d'apres les principes de M. Aepinus. Paris: Desaint, 1787. An important book in which the pioneering mathematically based theory of electricity and magnetism by Aepinus (17241802), published at St. Petersburg in 1759, is elucidated by the distinguished French mineralogist and physicist, Rene J. Haüy. "In contrast with Aepinus, he refrained from mathematical calculations and added Coulomb's recent results. Like Franklin and Aepinus, Haüy assumed one hypothetical electric fluid and one magnetic fluid, although in his later works he adhered to the twofluid theory." (D.S.B.). As pointed out by J. L. Heilbron in 'Elec. in 17th & 18th centuries' (1979, pp. 401 & 426), Haüy's epitome was applauded in France and Italy, and it is by Haüy's book that French physicists generally came to know Aepinus' work. Wheeler Gift Cat. 541. Mottelay, p.286. Ronalds, p.235. Gartrell 239. Bakken, p.69. $1,250.

Reclusive Pioneer's Summary Work in Electricity and Mathematics 249. HEAVISIDE, OLIVER (18501925). Electrical papers. London: Macmillan, 1892. "The two volumes of Heaviside's 'Electrical papers' contain papers that he wrote between 1872 and 1892. They encompass the results of his most creative scientific years, and also reflect his remarkable process of selfeducation. What the title does not reflect is that the two volumes possess a far greater degree of formal cohesion and continuity of subject matter than one might expect from a collection of scientific papers. …The 'Electrical papers' offer an advanced exposition, as well as many novel contributions to two basic theories: the theory of electromagnetic field dynamics due to Maxwell, and an extension of linear circuit theory to the case of continuous transmission lines. …Heaviside's mathematical innovations… (are) his contributions to the formulation of vector algebra, and his controversial version of the operational calculus." ('Landmark Writings in Western Math. 16401940', chap. 49 with a complete analysis of these volumes). D.S.B. 6: 211212. $1,300.

A Kinetic Theory of Gases in Advance of Bernoulli 250. HERMANN, JAKOB (16781733). Phoronomia, sive de viribus et motibus corporum solidorum et fluidorum libri duo. Amsterdam: R. & G. Wetsten, 1716. In a 1967 paper, the historian of science, Prof. T. L. Hankins characterized this significant but little studied treatise as the most important work on dynamics of the period following Newton's 'Principia'. In advance of Bernoulli's 'Hydrodynamica' (see item 225), Hermann's 'Phoronomia' contains the birth of the kinetic theory of gases (chap. 24), and it has Newton's second law of motion expressed in its modern form with acceleration given in the Leibnizian form of the differential calculus. Indeed, Hermann was championed by Leibniz, to whom he dedicated this book, and whose recommendation insured his appointment to the professorship at Padua (170713). Later in his career, Hermann was the colleague of the young Euler at St. Petersburg. The treatment of hydraulics theory in Hermann's work is based on geometrical methods, while applications are approached through the calculus. D.S.B. 6: 304305. 'Historic Writings in Hydraulics', no. 102. Babson/Newton, First Suppl., p. 88. $3,200.

Electric Waves The Birth of Radio Communication 251. HERTZ, HEINRICH (185794). Untersuchungen ueber die ausbreitung der elektrischen kraft. Leipzig: J. A. Barth, 1892.

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"In 1883, Heinrich Rudolph Hertz, German physicist, began studies on Maxwell's electromagnetic theory and, in 1888, after painstaking experimentation, experiments produced the electromagnetic waves predicted by Maxwell. Hertz' exposition of wave theory appeared under the title 'Untersuchungen ueber die ausbreitung der elektrischen kraft' (1892). His discovery of the properties of reflection, refraction, and polarization in electricity, with his wave theory of electrical motion, laid the foundation of radiotelegraphy and radiotelephony." (Milestones of Science 101). A 31page introduction by Hertz and explanatory notes accompany the reprints of his papers on electrical waves. PMM 377. Milestones of Science 101. H. F. Norman Lib. Cat. 1061. Bakken, p.224. Ekelöf 1455. Stanitz 85B. See: Heralds of Science 71. $1,400.

Henri Becquerel's Collection of Kelvin Papers 252. KELVIN, LORD (18241907). Thirteen pamphlets (offprints & original publications), the collection of Henri Becquerel (18521908). London, Edinburgh, & Glasgow: 18921908. (1). Report of the committee appointed for the purpose of constructing and issuing practical standards for usae in electrical measurements. London, (1992). 25 pp. (2). On deepwater twodimensional waves produced by any given initiating disturbance. Edinburgh, 1894, pp. (185)196. (3). On the front and rear of a free procession of waves in deep water. Edinburgh, 1894. pp. 311327. (4). Deep sea shipwaves. Edinburgh, 1895. pp. 10601084 with errata slip. (5). Initiation of deepsea waves of three classes…Edinburgh, 1896. pp. (399)436. (6). On contact electricity of metals. (London, 1897). 34 pp. (7). On the reflexion and refraction of solitary plane waves… (London, 1899). pp. (179)191. (8). On the application of force within a limited space, required to produce spherical solitary waves… (London, May 1899). pp. 480493. (9). On the application of force within a limited space… (London, Aug. 1899). pp. 227239. (10). On the application of force within a limited space… (London, Oct. 1899) pp. 388393. (11). Address on his installation as Chancellor of the University of Glasgow… Glasgow, 1904. 14 pp. (12). Westminster Abbey. The funeral service of the right honourable William Baron Kelvin… (London, 1907). 4 pp. (13). The problem of a spherical gaseous nebula. Edinburgh, 1908. pp. 259302. The greatness the presenter and the recipient require little commentary. William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, was a pioneer of thermodynamics and electromagnetic theory; the Kelvin scale of temperature is named after him. Henri Becquerel shared (with the Curies) the 1903 Nobel Prize in physics "…in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of spontaneous radioactivity." $2,000.

"enriched with a wealth of beautiful engravings" Torricelli Wrote to Galileo Contains the First Use of the Term 'Electromagnetism'

253. KIRCHER, ATHANASIUS (160280). Magnes sive de arte magnetica opus tripartitum. Rome: L. Grignani for H. Scheus, 1641.

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Father Kircher's first published work, a brief treatise on the magnet, appeared in 1631 at Würzburg. A decade later he elaborated his interest in magnetism and related subjects into his largest and grandest work on the subject. "Kircher's 'Magnes' is filled with curiosities, both profound and frivolous. The work does not deal solely with what modern physicists call magnetism. Kircher discusses, for example, the magnetism of the earth and heavenly bodies; the tides; the attraction and repulsion in animals and plants; and the magnetic attraction of music and love. He also explains the practical applications of magnetism in medicine, hydrolics, and even in the construction of scientific instruments and toys. ...This work contains the first use of the term... 'electromagnetism' (p. 640). Kircher's 'Magnes' contains all that was known in his day on electricity and magnetism..." (Brigham Young Univ. Exhibition, 1989, no. 4). Known for being one of the leading advocates of the idea of universal magnetism, Kircher received from Mersenne his observations for the table of magnetic declination that Kircher published in the 'Magnes'. Data also came to him from Gassendi, Scheiner, Cabeo, and Jesuit missionaries. "The 'Magnes' was the first work in which Kircher demonstrated his ability to create a global network of informants... In this respect, Kircher earned the admiration of contemporaries who did not have access to his range of information. They eagerly read his book to see what he had done with their data. They turned the pages in order to see what new instruments he had dreamt up in order to demonstrate the power of the magnet. Galileo's disciple Evangelista Torricelli was the first to report the appearance of the longawaited 'Magnes'. From Rome in June 1641, he informed Galileo that the book was pleasing to behold, 'enriched with a wealth of beautiful engravings'." (P. Findlen, ed. 'Athanasius Kircher', 2004). See: J. Godwin, 'Athansius Kircher', 1979 for numerous facsimiles from this book. "…a masterpiece of baroque engraving…" (Tomash Library K47.) For more on this book, see: J. Glassie, 'A man of misconceptions', 2012, chapter 9. Wheeler Gift Cat. 116 (with reprod., p. 118). Mottelay, pp. 63, 120. Gartrell 285. Ronalds, p. 266. Bakken, p. 15. Ekelöf Cat. 116. $7,200.

“Perhaps the most beautiful mathematical treatise in existence” Evans 254. LAGRANGE, JOSEPH LOUIS (17361813). Méchanique analitique. Paris: la Veuve Desaint, 1788. "Lagrange's 'Méchanique analytique' extended and formalized Newton's work on mechanics. With the appearance of the 'Mécanique analytique' in 1788, Lagrange proposed to reduce the theory of mechanics and the art of solving problems in that field to general formulas, the mere development of which would yield all the equations necessary for the solution of every problem. The [work] united and presented from a single point of view the various principles of mechanics, demonstrated their connection and mutual dependence, and made it possible to judge their validity and scope." (D.S.B.). "In the preface to 'Méchanique analytique', Lagrange drew attention to the complete absence of diagrams in the book. He believed that these had been rendered unnecessary by the lucidity of his presentation." (H. F. Norman Lib. 1257 and Sale no. 580). Grolier/Science 100, no. 61. Heralds of Science 112. Milestones of Science 120. 'En Francais dans le texte', no. 179. Biblio. mechanica, p.189. Stanitz 60. Evans Epochal Achievements 10. $9,500. 255. LANGENBUCHER, JAKOB (d. 1791). Beschreibung einer beträchtlich verbesserten elektrisiermaschine, sammt vielen versuchen und einer ganz neuen lehre. Augsburg: M. Riegers, 1780. The Augsburg silver turner is known to have spent a good deal of his wealth on improvements of electrical devices. In this work Langenbucher describes and illustrates his rotating globe machine on the Nairne pattern. W. D. Hackmann, 'Elec. from glass', 1978, p. 199 relates this machine to a type designed and made by Kulibin, St. Petersburg. Sotheran/Zeitlinger, 1st suppl., no. 3419 "A rare work… Of interest is the author's 'wholly new' theory of electric influence." Ronalds, p. 285. Gartrell 302. Bakken, p. 78. Not in Wheeler or Mottelay. $1,100.

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255a. LE GRAND, ANTHONY (162999). Institutio philosophiae, secundum principia domini Renati Descartes: nova methodo adornata & explicata. London: J. Martyn, 1672. The philosopher, Anthony Le Grand, played a significant role in disseminating Cartesian philosophy in England, especially at Cambridge where this text was much read. The author of a number of treatises, this is his first to demonstrate his adherence to the new philosophy. Le Grand attempted to clarify Descartes' account of motion with an effect on the Cartesian understanding of matter, causation, and mindbody interaction. He also extended the scope of Cartesian physics. The present book received a number of editions in England and on the Continent. Interestingly, William Brattle (16621717) adapted Le Grand's text for use at Harvard College. $950.

The Relationship of Density of a Body and its Index of Refraction: The LorentzLorenz Formula

256. LORENTZ, HENDRIK A. (18531928). Over het verband tusschen de voorplantingssnelheid van het licht en de dichtheid en samenstellung der middenstoffen. Amsterdam: C. G. Van Der Post, 1878. "In 1878, (Lorentz) published an essay on the relation between the velocity of light in a medium and the density and composition thereof. The resulting formula, proposed almost simultaneously by the Danish physicist Lorenz, has become known as the LorentzLorenz formula." ('Nobel Lectures, Physics 19011921', Amsterdam, 1967). This important and scarce publication, a sequel to Lorentz' 1875 Leiden doctoral dissertation on electromagnetic optics, provides a further strengthening of "… his distinction between the roles of matter and the ether." (D.S.B. 8: 487500, esp. p. 493). $1,500. 257. MACVICAR, JOHN G. (180084). Inquiries concerning the medium of light and the form of its molecules. Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black, 1833. Macvicar was educated at St. Andrews and Edinburgh. This is an early work among his many books in science, philosophy, and religion. Sotheran/Zeitlinger, vol. 2, no. 11261 notes: "In order to explain the optical phenomena which were difficult or impossible to account for on the corpuscular theory, the author assumes light to consist of molecules with a crystalline structure emitted from the luminous body and travel in groups." Not in Brit. Opt. Assoc. Cat. or Lomb Lib. Cat. $750.

The Famous Revolutionary's Best Known Scientific Work 258. MARAT, JEAN PAUL (174393). Recherches physiques sur le feu. Paris: Jombert, 1780. The famous French revolutionary wrote a number of scientific works of which this is his best known. Marat presents a mechanical theory of heat (fluide igné) "…based on 166 experiments two of which he demonstrates the increase in weight of metals on calcination (pp. 2931). Marat's theory 'was first vigorously attacked by an American, Count Rumford, but as late as 1856 it received

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preference over dynamic theory in the article 'Heat' in the 'Encyclopedia Britannica' (8th edition). (Cajori, 'History of physics', 1929, p. 122)." (Neville II. 138). A. Greenberg, 'Art of chemistry' (2003), pp. 189190 with reproduction of plate 1. Bolton, 1st suppl., p. 284. Duveen, p. 388. Partington III. 607. $1,200. 259. MARAT, JEAN PAUL (174393). Recherches physiques sur l'electricite. Paris: Clousier, 1782. An exceptional copy of the famous French revolutionary's treatise on electricity. "This, like the rest of the author's works, is full of original ideas and experiments; (as many as 214 experiments are recounted in this book). Pp. 34553 contain an interesting chapter: 'Des Phènomenes électriques relatifs a l'Ebranlement de la Lumière', in which an explanation of the phenomena is attempted." (Dr. E. Weil, Cat. 33, no. 177). Wheeler Gift Cat. 509, with facsimile of title. Ronalds, p. 322. Mottelay, p. 269. Gartrell 346. Bakken, p. 83. $1,400.

Seventeenth Century Classic of Hydrodynamics 260. MARIOTTE, EDME (162084). Traite du mouvement des eaux des autres corps fluides. Paris: E. Michallet, 1686. "Honored as the man who introduced experimental physics into France, Mariotte played a central role in the work of the Paris Academy of Sciences shortly after its formation in 1666 until his death in 1684." (D.S.B.). Mariotte's most important work, offered here, was published posthumously under the editorship of La Hire, and it reflects his continued interest in the study of the movement of bodies in a resisting medium. Within the book's five parts, Mariotte effectively deals with the circulation of the earth's water supply, analyzes the balancing forces of fluids due to weight, elasticity, and impact, considers the practical hydromechanics of fountains, and studies the strength of materials (disputing Galileo's analysis). 'Mariotte's bottle' is also described here (see: Wolf I. 234). 'Historic Writings on Hydraulics', no. 80. Rouse & Ince, 'History of hydraulics', pp. 6368. Biblio. mechanica, p. 217. Waller 11398. H. F.Norman Lib. Cat. 1440. Stanitz Sale, no. 288. $1,600. 261. MAUPERTUIS, PIERRE LOUIS (16981759). The figure of the earth, determined from observations made by order of the French King, at the polar circle. London: T. Cox…, 1738. Scarcer than the French original of the same year, this English translation is noted in Todhunter's exhaustive two volume treatise on the figure of the earth (1873) along with the German (1741) and the Latin (1742) translations, but unlike the others, he had not seen the English translation. Todhunter comments: "Maupertuis adopted and explained Newton's propositions on attraction and on the figure of the earth; and he conducted an expedition to Lapland, for the measurement of an arc of the meridian, the result of which was fatal to the Cassinian hypothesis." D.S.B. 9: 186189. 'A Heavenly Library', no. 8.7. Sotheran/Zeitlinger I. 2912. $1,200.

"…the most significant event of the 19th century will be judged as Maxwell's discovery of the laws of electrodynamics" Feynman

262. MAXWELL, JAMES CLERK (183179). A treatise on electricity and magnetism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1873. Maxwell's "…'Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism' is probably, after Newton's 'Principia' the most renowned book in the history of physics. It was published in 1873 and has been in

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continuous use ever since." (B. Mahon, 'The man who changed everything', 2003). The first issue is said to have an errata slip (as here) and in some copies, a publisher's catalogue (never here) with a listing for Maxwell's 'Treatise' as "just published" on p. 10. Not knowing the exact issue dates for the catalogue and the 'Treatise', it seems possible that the earliest issue could have only the errata slip and no catalogue. In any case, though it is it possible a catalogue was not picked up by the binder for inclusion, the present copy having only an errata slip and not errata leaves as the later issue does, must be at the least an early issue if not the first. Richard Feynman wrote about this epochal work: "Today we understand better that what counts are the equations themselves and not the model used to get them. We may only question whether the equations are true or false. This is answered by doing experiments, and untold numbers of experiments have confirmed Maxwell's equations. If we take away the scaffolding he used to build it, we find that Maxwell's beautiful edifice stands on its own. He brought together all of the laws of electricity and magnetism and made one compete and beautiful theory." Feynman also wrote: "From a long view of the history of mankind seen from say, ten thousand years from now there can be no doubt that the most significant event of the 19th century will be judged as Maxwell's discovery of the laws of electrodynamics." Landmarks Writings in Western Mathematics, chap. 44. Horblit/Scentific 100, no. 72 errata slip and "some copies contain 8 leaves…of advertisem*nts…" H. F. Norman Lib. Cat. 1466. See: PMM 355. $9,500.

Samuel Morey's Manuscript Account to Nathaniel Bowditch of His Internal Combustion Engine Comments on Its Application to His Boat and to the 'New' Railroad

262a. MOREY, SAMUEL (17621843). A.L.S. to the President of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, Nathaniel Bowditch (17731838), May 24, 1830. This important massive (in length and size) letter is more a scientific manuscript which launches at its very start into an extensive and detailed account by Morey of his achievements. Writing to the distinguished astronomer and mathematician, Nathaniel Bowditch, the president of the Bostonbased American Academy of Arts & Sciences (founded in 1780), Morey first describes his pioneering vapor combustion experiments with water, turpentine and air mixtures which led to his patent internal combustion engine. He provides details of the challenges of harnessing the energy generated and maintaining the vacuum, and his solutions to the difficulties. This is all written in a personal, riveting style. Having described the workings of his engine in full, Morey relates his experiences with it, first as attached to a small boat on Medford Pond and on the Middlesex between Charlestown and Medford, then locomoting on a railroad. The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad was incorporated in 1827 and opened for operations in May 1830. Morey travelled with his engine to Baltimore and the results were satisfactory though it was so cold at the time that the vapor would not form fast enough. Returning eventually to Boston after a couple of missed trials, Morey built his own temporary rail and tested his engine with good results at his shop in East Cambridge. He estimates that with a suitable rail 15 to 20 mph was possible. Having devoted some years to his engine project, Morey wonders whether the Society will consider his claim "to the premium". At this point, Morey mentions his other endeavors: a power for raising water and turning a large grind stone and other machinery. Further Morey notes improvements to his engine including weight reduction (200 lbs. to run a locomotive), he mentions the safety of the design over steam engines, and calls his latest "a selfacting Chemical Engine." Here he gives a detailed chemical explanation of how it works followed by a mechanical explanation of its operation. In the last line of the letter, Morey states his upcoming availability in the Boston area when he can provide information on his experiments in a fuller form. 'Bio. Dict. Amer. Sci.', 1979, p. 184. D. J. Struik, 'The origins of Amer. Sci.', 1957, p. 121, $4,500.

Calligraphic Natural Philosophy Manuscript with Illustrations of Instruments 263. [Natural Philosophy Manuscript]. Part II. Hydrostatics. Part III. Pneumatics. Part IV. Optics. Probably Scottish, c.1801.

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' The text leaves are watermarked: "J. Whatman 1794" and "J. Whatman 1801"; the flyleaves are watermarked: "J. Ruse 1802". The manuscript, executed in a fine calligraphic hand, consists of propositions, corollaries, examples, and classes each of these with elegant headlines. However, the real visual feature is the very well done illustrations, many of 18th century instruments (e.g. a Hauksbee air pump, a specific gravity balance, camera obscura, solar microscope, magic lantern), others demonstrating physical principles (e.g. the eye and nature of vision, a dioptrical telescope, a single lens microscope, refraction of light at spherical surfaces, of the pressure and weight of fluids, etc.). The Air Pump is identical to that illustrated by B. Martin in his 'Philosophical Grammar' 1735) and Hauksbee/Whiston (1712), Pneumatics plate II. These illustrations are done in ink with the use of pen and brush. It is possible the manuscript is Scottish since one worked example refers to "Scots pints", and in another example a Doctor Brydon is noted as measuring the height of mercury in a barometer at the top of Mr. Etna. This may be Patick Brydone (17361818), a member of the Edinburgh Philosophical Society from 1758. Offers a handsome adjunct to a collection of early natural philosophy books and/or instruments. $875. The First Jesuit 'Principia' Significant American Colonial Ownership and Manuscript Addition

264. NEWTON, ISAAC (16421727). Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica. Geneva: Barrillot & Filii, 17394042. Newton's 'Principia', first published in a single volume in 1687, with two further editions in 1713 and 1726. Its importance was assessed in 1747 by the French mathematical physicist, Alexis Clairaut: "The famous book of 'Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy' marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics. The method followed by its illustrious author Sir Newton ... spread the light of mathematics on a science which up to then had remained in the darkness of conjectures and hypotheses ." This is the first of the socalled Jesuits' editions, although the editors were Minims, and is valued for its copious commentary. It also contains in Vol. III the following important pieces which were awarded the prize of the French Academy in 1724 for solving the problem of the motion of the tides from the theory of gravity: 'Traité sur le Flux et Reflux de la Mer' par Daniel Bernoully…; 'De Causa Physica Fluxus et Refluxus Maris' a Colin Maclaurin…; 'Inquistio Physica in Causam Fluxus ac Refluxus Maris' a Leonardo Euler… These represent all that was done on the theory of tides between the publication of Newton's 'Principia' and the investigations of Laplace. The text of the 'Principia' is that of the third edition". (Babson/Newton 30). Gray 13. Wallis 13. $6,800.

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265. PONCELET, POLYCARPE (c. 172090). La nature dans la formation du tonnerre, et la reproduction des êtres vivans. Paris: P. G. Le Mercier & C. Saillant, 1766. This twopart treatise considers the causes and effects of lightning in the first part, and the physiology of plants in the second part. Mottelay, p. 226 writes: "L'Abbé Poncelet, a native of Verdun, France publishes at Paris (1766) 'La nature dans la formation du Tonnerre', etc., wherein he indicates a method of protecting from lightning residences, pavilions, and other structures, by constructing them of resinous woods and lining them with either silk or waxed cloths." The handsome frontispiece shows a person in a lightning protected laboratory room demonstrating to others while lightning strikes. The other plates illustrate electrical apparatus. Wheeler Gift Cat. 418. Gartrell 433. Bakken, p. 97. Ronalds, p.408. $975.

Redi's Letter on the Inventor of Spectacles 266. REDI FRANCESCO (162697). Lettera intorno all' invenzione degli occhiali. Florence: F. Onofri, 1678. "An important document in the history of eyeglasses in which Redi relates the discovery of a reference to their invention in a manuscript dated 1299. He regarded this as the earliest reference to the use of spectacles. Redi ascribed the invention of eyeglasses, or at least their perfection, to the Dominican friar Alessandro della Spina (d. 1313). The evidence on this subject is fragmentary, however it would seem that eyeglasses developed from a type of reading glass which probably took the form of a planoconvex lens laid directly on a page to enlarge the letters." (Becker Collection in Ophthalmology, no. 311). Prandi 19: "Prima e rara edizione", records a copy on large paper as quarto in size, likely as the copy here. Brit. Opt. Assoc. Lib. II. 88. Not in N.L.M. (17th C.). $1,700.

Herald of Science Copies 267. RUTHERFORD, ERNST (18711937). Radioactivity. Cambridge: Univ. Press, 1904. Offered with: THOMSON, J. J. (18561940). Conduction of electricity through gases. Cambridge: Univ. Press, 1903. '' ' Heralds of Science 51 and 165 are headed 'The Nuclear Atom' and 'The Electron' respectively. Rutherford was awarded the 1908 Nobel Prize in chemistry, and Thomson was awarded the 1906 Nobel Prize in physics. Rutherford's classic treatise is also cited as Grolier/Science 100, no. 91, and Thomson's book as PMM 386d. $1,500.

Contact Electricity Before Galvani 268. SULZER, JOHANN G. (172079). Nouvelle theorie des plaisiers; avec des reflexions sur l'origine du plaisir par M. Kaestner. n.p., 1767. J. G. Sulzer, born in Winterthur, Switzerland, was first a professor of mathematics at a Berlin school, and from 1765, professor of philosophy at the newly established Ritterakademie. He was also a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences (from 1750). In 1752 in the Berlin 'Mémoires', Sulzer published an account of his preGalvanic experiment which involved two pieces of metal (lead

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and silver) made to join along their edges and applied to the tongue with a resultant sensation which he characterized approaching the taste of vitriol of iron (ferrous sulphate). Neither piece separately gave any trace of taste. This experiment appeared in his book on a new theory of pleasures, but despite these publications, this important observation of contact electricity "...slept in obscurity from the time of Sulzer to the time of Galvani." (Mottelay, p.223). A supplement by A. G. Kästner on the origin of pleasures appears on pages 329363. Wheeler Gift Cat. 420 with facsimile of t.p. $950.

Manuscript of Count Rumford's First Paper Original Sketches for the Plates Drawn by Him 269. [Manuscript]. THOMPSON, BENJAMIN, COUNT RUMFORD (17531814). New experiments upon gunpowder, with occasional observations and practical inferences, to which are added an Account of a new method of determining the velocities of all kinds of military projectiles… (London, 1781). The manuscript, executed in a fine secretarial hand, was likely from the original or a working copy and follows closely the publication of this memoir in Volume IV of the 'Collected works of Count Rumford' (1970) edited by Sanborn C. Brown (note the title differs slightly). Rumford published his first paper in the Royal Society's 'Philosophical Transactions', volume 71, 1781. It was read before the Society on 29 March 1781. The memoir also appeared as the first entry in Rumford's 'Philosophical papers' published at London in 1802 (see item 270). A French translation was published in 1857. Also in 1781, Rumford was made F.R.S. "The research work which won him this honor was a series of studies of the force of fired gunpowder which he carried out in the summer of 1778 on the summer estate of Lord George Germain. Thompson perfected a method of testing the force of gunpowder by means of a ballistic pendulum which is still a common physics demonstration in using the conservation of momentum for measuring the velocity of rifle bullets. …Even at the age of 25, he was searching for a clue as to the nature of heat, and many of his speculations on the nature of the force behind an explosion of gunpowder centered around a search for the explanation of the nature of heat itself." (S. C. Brown, 'Benjamin Thompson Count Rumford, Count Rumford on the nature of heat', 1967). The original plate sketches compare very favorably in approach and style to that of his 'Plans for a Carriage' plate XVI in S. C. Brown's 'Scientific drawings of Count Rumford at Harvard' (Harvard Lib. Bull., Autumn 1958). Also see: 'An exhibition of the scientific works of Count Rumford' (Amer. Acad. of Arts & Sciences, March 26, 1953), pp. 89; and S. C. Brown, 'Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford', 1981, pp. 5558. D.S.B. 13: 35352. See: PMM 323, Heralds of Science 151, Milestones of Science 189, and H. F. Norman Lib. Cat. 2072. $12,000. 270. THOMPSON, BENJAMIN, COUNT RUMFORD (17531814). Philosophical papers: being a collection of memoirs, dissertations, and experimental investigations, relating to various branches of natural philosophy and mechanics. Volume 1 (all published). London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1802. This collection of Rumford memoirs commences with his 'An account of some experiments on gunpowder', a reprinting with altered title of his 'Philosophical Transactions' paper of 1781 (see the manuscript, item 269). Also included are memoirs on experiments with cannon, on air from water, on moisture absorption, and experiments on light and colors. See: Bibliotheca mechanica, p. 285 for a complete listing. Bolton I. 791 (with 1803 date). Edelstein 2254. Not in Smith Coll., Cole, or Neville. $1,500. 271. THOMPSON, BENJAMIN, COUNT RUMFORD (17531814). Mémoires sur la chaleur. Paris: Didot, 1804.

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"In this uncommon work Rumford gives an extended historical account of his researches on heat, together with three memoirs containing new information on the subject." (Neville II. 546). There are four essays altogether, the second is a translation into French of his classic 'Enquiry concerning the nature of heat', the third is a summary of his research on heat, and the last 'Observations sur les Puits', a translation of a 'Phil. Trans.' paper. Biblio. Mechanica, pp. 285286. Stanitz Exhibition Cat., no. 62. Partington IV. 31. $950.

First Treatise to Present Analytical and Experimental Results of Fraunhofer's Diffraction Theory

272. SCHWERD, F. MAGNUS (17921871). Die beugungserscheinungen aus den fundamentalgesetzen, der undulationstheorie. Mannheim: Schwan and Goetz, 1835. The classic comprehensive treatise on Fraunhofer diffraction in which Schwerd developed the Fraunhofer theory a great triumph for wave over emission theory of light. Ernst Mach wrote in his 'Principles of physical optics' (1921; Eng. trans., 1928) that "Fraunhofer only gives us the results of his experiments, the theory, based on Fresnel's principles, was developed by Schwerd." The 1914 Nobel laureate, Max von Laue utilized Schwerd's theory of diffraction by an optical grating in a formulation that made it valid if iterated for a crossgrating. This was a key step in the analysis of xray diffraction of a crystal a discovery Einstein called one of the most beautiful in physics. Schwerd was professor of mathematics at the Lyceum in Speyer. Poggendorff II. 878. D.S.B. 8: 51. R. K. Smeltzer, 'Four centuries of graphic design for science', Grolier Club, 2004, p.24. Weil Cat. 21, no. 352 "very rare". $1,700.

Presentation Copies to Claude Shannon, Pioneer of Information Theory 272a. [SHANNON, CLAUDE (19162001)]. DE LATIL, PIERRE (b. 1905). Thinking by machine a study of cybernetics. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, (1956). Offered with: FULLER, BUCKMINSTER (18951983) and ANWAR DIL (b. 1928). Humans in universe. New York: Mouton, (1983). When De Latil's book appeared in 1953, it was one of the first introductory books on cybernetics. Norbert Wiener described De Latil's book as "one of the really good popularizations of cybernetics". Buckminster Fuller, the famous American architect, systems theorist, designer, inventor, and visionary is especially well known for his designs of geodesic domes. $750.

Adumbration of the Synthesis of Water 273. SIGAUD DE LA FOND, JEAN (17301810). Essai sur differentes especes d'air, qu'on designe sous le man d'air fixe. Paris: P. Fr. Gueffier, 1779.

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"In the 1770's Sigaud collaborated with Macquer in investigating the aeriform fluids or 'airs', newly discovered by Priestley. In 1776 they burned a quantity of the socalled 'inflammable air' (hydrogen), and by holding a porcelain saucer over the flame they managed to collect a few drops of a colorless liquid both researchers agreed was water. The experiment is often cited as an anticipation of some of the work of Cavendish, Lavoisier, and Monge on the synthesis of water, but neither Macquer nor Sigaud de la Fond fully recognized the significance of their observation." (D.S.B.). Partington III. 10561. Duveen, p. 550. Bolton I. 833. Neville II. 475. Cole 1213. $875. 274. SIGAUD DE LA FOND, JEAN (17301810). Essai sur differentes d'air fixe ou de gas… Nouvelle edition, revue et augmentée, par M. Rouland. Paris: P. Fr. Gueffier, 1785. "The second edition has been revised and augmented by N. Rouland, Sigaud de la Fond's nephew. Late discoveries have been added, e.g. the experiments of Priestley, Ingenhousz and Senebier on plants; Cavendish and Lavoisier on the combustion of inflammable and dephlogisticated airs giving water; Lavoisier on the decomposition of water; and the Montgolfier brothers, Charles and Robert on balloon ascents." (Cole 1214). Bolton I. 833. Duveen, p. 551. Neville II. 475. $950.

The Great English Engineer Conducts the First Experiments Using Laboratory Models The Rare Separate Monograph Issue (1760)

275. SMEATON, JOHN (172492). (1). An experimental enquiry concerning the natural powers of water and wind to turn mills and other machines. London, 1760. (2). An account of some experiments upon a machine for measuring the way of a ship at sea. London, 1754. (3). A description of a new pyrometer. n. p., n. d. The first of the great English engineers, John Smeaton, read over five sessions of the Royal Society in May and June of 1759, his threepart treatise on the measurement of the efficiency of windmills and waterwheels. "In 1759 Smeaton's engineering and scientific careers were crowned with outstanding success. In that year he completed the Eddystone lighthouse, which confirmed his reputation as an engineer, and published a paper on waterwheels and windmills, for which he received the Copley Medal of the Royal Society. …Through experiments on a model wheel he showed that, contrary to common opinion, overshot wheels are twice as efficient as undershot. …There is reason to believe that Smeaton's work led other designers to forsake the long preferred undershot wheel. Moreover, the continued economic importance of waterwheels contributed a sense of urgency to the recurrent controversy over the measure of 'force'; and in these discussions Smeaton's research and his support of the school of thought played a predominant role." (D.S.B.). The Smeaton biography edited by Skempton (1981, p. 235): "The 'Experimental Enquiry' was issued as a separate monograph in 1760. With the original plates, but new setting of type, this is now one of the rarest of Smeaton's publications." Stanitz, 'Sources of Science and Technology' (1972), no. 59A describes a similar copy bound in a 20th century half calf volume. A much later and often encountered second edition (1794) of Smeaton's 'Natural powers of water and wind' appeared as a posthumous book published by I. and J. Taylor (see: Biblio. Mechanica, pp. 297298). Rouse & Ince, 'Hist. hydraulics' (1957), pp. 120123. Historic Writings on Hydraulics, no. 159. A. Wolf, 'Hist. Sci., Tech., & Philo. 18th C.' (1952); pp. 190192 with illus. of Smeaton's pyrometer, pp. 588592, 595597 with facsimile of plates. $3,250.

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Principal Treatise on the Subject in Its Day

276. SMITH, ROBERT (16891768). Harmonics, or the philosophy of musical sounds. Cambridge: J. Bentham, 1749. The English physicist and Plumian Professor at Cambridge, Robert Smith, wrote two important treatises, a large and influential work on optics (1738) and the present work on harmonics, the principal work on its subject in its day. It had a second edition in 1759. "Although it was partly a textbook, Smith’s principal objective was to describe his system of tempering a musical scale by making 'all the consonances... as equally harmonious as possible...' He derived the 'equally harmonic' intervals by a mathematical theory and confirmed his results on an organ and a harpsichord. Smith’s temperament was an improvement on existing systems, but its use required impractical mechanical changes in the instruments." (D.S.B.). Smith’s books were of considerable influence on directing the career of the young William Herschel (17381822), who had started out in music. In the second half of the 1760s, "...Herschel’s inquiring mind had moved from the practice of music to its theoretical study in Robert Smith’s ‘Harmonics’, and from there to Smith’s 'Opticks'..." (D.S.B. 6: 328). $1,250.

Stokes' Law The Beginning of the Modern Science of Hydrodynamics 277. STOKES, GEORGE GABRIEL (18191903). On the effect of the internal friction of fluids on the motion of pendulums. Cambridge: printed at the Pitt Press by John W. Parker, 1851. Bound with: On the dynamical theory of diffraction. Cambridge: Parker, 1850. Two important lengthy papers by eminent Irish physicist, G. G. Stokes, Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge, are here offered in their separate printings from the 'Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society'. These are copies presented to the Irish professor of physics, Henry Hennessy. On page 44 of Stokes' 1851 memoir appears 'Stokes' Law', a formula for the forces opposing a small sphere in its progress through a viscous fluid. Here is the beginning of the modern science of hydrodynamics. This seminal paper is cited as No. 339 in 'Historic writings on hydraulics', on p. 336 of Parkinson's 'Breakthroughs', and in Pickover's 'Physics Book', p. 216. Timoshenko in his 'History of strength of materials' (1983, pp. 226227) gives a detailed discussion summarizing: "In this work, he establishes two theorems which have proved very important in the theory of vibration of elastic bodies." In the 1850 paper (read 1849), "…Stokes treated the ether as a sensibly incompressible elastic medium. Poisson had already calculated the disturbance at any point at any time resulting from a given initial disturbance in a finite portion of an elastic solid; but Stokes presented a different derivation, which he deemed simpler and more straightforward than Poisson's. Stokes also determined the disturbance in any direction in secondary waves, upon which the dynamical theory of diffraction depends, not limiting himself, as others had, to secondary waves in the vicinity of the normal to the primary wave. Moreover, by comparing his theory with the results of diffraction experiments that he conducted with a glass grating, Stokes answered the vexing question about the direction of vibrations of planepolarized light by concluding that they were perpendicular to the plane of polarization." (D.S.B.). See: Timoshenko, pp. 227228. $2,000. 278. STURGEON, WILLIAM (17831850). Scientific researches, experimental and theoretical in electricity, magnetism, galvanism, electromagnetism, and electrochemistry. Published by subscription. Bury: T. Crompton, 1850.

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In the year of his death, William Sturgeon issued this large volume by subscription (approx. 275 copies in the subscriber list) "…which contains all of his important works. …Sturgeon's major achievements concerned electromagnetism. In 1825 he received a silver medal and thirty guineas from the Society of Arts in recognition of his electromagnetic apparatus, including his important refinement of the design of the electromagnet." (D.S.B.). 'Scientific Researches' also included: a 'Sturgeon disk', the ignition of gunpowder by electrical discharge, kite experiments, the action of magnets on nonferruginous metals, etc. The majority of the subscribers are from Sturgeon's locale, but a few identified instrument makers (like Sturgeon himself) are listed, and most significantly, two of the leading English scientists of the day, Faraday and Joule, were subscribers. Wheeler Gift Cat. 1190. Ekelöf Cat. 981. $1,500.

Varignon's First Book A Foundation Work in Mechanics 279. [VARIGNON, PIERRE (16541722)]. Projet d'une nouvelle mechanique. Avec un examen de l'opinion de M. Borelli, sur les propriétez des poids suspendus par des cordes. Paris: la Veuve d'E. Martin, J. Boudot, & E. Martin, 1687. "The author's first published work, and 'the first treatise in which the whole science of statics was deduced from the principle of the parallelogram of forces', which he here enunciates, simultaneously with and independently of Newton." (Sotheran/Zeitlinger, 2nd suppl., no. 6418). Professor of mathematics at the Collége Mazarin, Varignon "...announces the principle of the composition of forces. In discussing Guidobaldo's 'Mechanicorum liber', Varignon grasped two important points: the law of levers did not hold a privileged position in statics and the unification of mechanics was to be carried out on the basis of the composition of forces; and second, the real reason for the equilibrium on the inclined plane was that the resultant of the applied forces is orthogonal to the possible displacement. Varignon also examined Borelli's opinion on the properties of bodies suspended by cords (chapter 13 of volume one of 'De motu animalium') which criticized Stevin's ideas; Varignon settled the issue in Stevin's favor, at the same time admitting Borelli's scientific greatness." (Biblio. mechanica, p.337). 'En Francais dans le texte', no. 123. D.S.B. 13: 584587. Weil, Cat. 27, no. 203. Honeyman Sale, no. 3031. $2,000.

Latimer Clark's Copy with Three Autograph Letters Addressed to Him by Samuel A. Varley 280. VARLEY, SAMUEL ALFRED (18321921). Eighteen publications, seventeen are reprints from the 'Electrical Review' (188990) with three A.L.S. to Latimer Clark (182298) bound in. The inventor, instrument maker and artist, Cornelius Varley (17811873) and his electrical engineer son, Cromwell F. Varley (182883), started in 1852 the Electric Telegraph Co. with Latimer Clark as its chief engineer. Cornelius' other son, Samuel Alfred, whose volume is offered here, was involved in a longlived priority dispute over the invention of the selfexcited dynamo (dynamoelectric machines) in the 1860s. Despite the priority dispute, S. A. Varley was awarded a gold medal for inventing a selfexciting dynamo at the International Inventions Exhibition in 1885. Six reprints and the pamphlet by S. A. Varley ['Compound winding dynamos King, Brown & Co. v. The AngloBush Corporation', n.p., n.d. (c. 1890), 15 pp.] concern this controversy as do the three autograph letters to Latimer Clark. The first letter (Dec. 18, 1889) is of several pages and presents Varley's revealing detailed and personal account of his view of the matter and how he has been treated by claimants and colleagues. The other two letters covered the transmittal of reprints. The topics of further reprints concern lightning conductors (1890, eight pamphlets), and the work of

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Kelvin and Lodge (1890, three pamphlets). See: H. W. Meyer, 'A history of electricity and magnetism', 1972, p. 74. $1,800.

The First Global Meteorological Society Set of the American Contributor, Prof. Samuel Williams of Harvard

281. [WILLIAMS, SAMUEL (17431817)]. [HEMMER, JOHAN JAKOB (173390)]. Ephemerides Socetatis Meterorologcae Palatinae. Vol. 1. Historia et observationes anni 1781. Vol. 2. Observationes anni 1782. Vol. 3. Observationes anni 1783. Vol. 5. Observationes anni 1785. Mannheim: Novae Societatis Typographicae, 1783, 1784, 1785, 1787. The Elector Palatine, Karl Theodor (172499) of the southern German state of Palatinate Bavaria, chartered in September 1780 a permanently funded international network of meteorological observers known as the 'Societas Meteorologica Palatina' the first global meteorological society. Hemmer, a Jesuit from Cologne, moved to Mannheim to become chaplain, canon, and spiritual counselor to Karl Theodor. Hemmer was made the Society's secretary recruiting observers, overseeing the construction of instruments, and serving as editor of the annual 'Ephemerides meteorologicae'. (Hemmer) "…established altogether 39 stations that sent him reports of daily weather observations from 1781 to 1792. …Upon reading of Hemmer's innovative plan…, Williams had the fine idea that America should be included in the network of stations." (R. F. Rothschild). Williams had considerable experience in collecting weather data which inspired Hemmer's response to Williams' offer of participation. Williams' data was first included in Volume 3 and further observations by him appear in Volumes 4 (not present) and 5. Volume 5 also includes Williams' June 1785 election to membership in the appendix. "Establishment of the station at Harvard by a leading Continental academy and the election of Fellowship of its scientist were significant honors for the College and for Williams himself." (R. F. Rothschild). Volume 1 includes Hemmer's 'Descriptio instrumentorum meteorologicorum', pages 5490 and plates of instruments. Volume 3 contains an engraving of a declination compass made by the great German instrument maker, G. F. Brander. See: D. C. Cassidy, 'Meteorology in Mannheim: The Palatine Meteorological Society, 17891795', Sudhoffs Archiv 69, 1985. Poggendorff I. 1062. $2,400.

C. T. R. Wilson's Copy Nobel Laureate and Contributor 282. [WILSON, C. T. R. (18691959)]. ABRAHAM, HENRI (18681943) AND PAUL LANGEVIN (18721946), (eds). Les quantites elementaires d'electricite. Ions, electrons, corpuscles. Paris: GauthierVillars, 1905. The foundation of the electron theory and the phenomenon of radioactivity are documented in this important compendium with papers by Wilson, Hertz, Becquerel, Crookes, Perrin, Plücker, Poincare, Righi, Rutherford, J. J. Thomson, the Curies, etc. 'Sur la theorie des electron' (pp. 430512) by Lorentz was especially written for this collection.Wilson is noted in PMM 386. $850.

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Important Treatise on Electricity Author's First Book

283. WINKLER, JOHANN HEINRICH (170370). Gedanken von den eigenschaften, wirkungen und ursachen der electricitaet, nebst einer beschreibung zwo neuer elektrischen maschinen. Leipzig: B.C. Breitkopf, 1744. J. H. Winkler published this, his first work on electricity, in 1744 after having met C. A. Hausen who inspired him "...to repeat all the electrical experiments described by Musschenbroek. The operation of the friction electricity machine was, to begin with, performed by pressing a hand (a dry hand!) against the rotating glass globe or, later glass cylinder. Winkler made the machine more effective and comfortable by replacing the hand with a leather cushion, pressed against the globe or cylinder by a spring. In his printed works Winkler also enters into the theory of electricity. His theoretical deductions are always supported by accurate experiments." (Ekelöf Cat., p. 95). Wheeler Gift Cat. 313. Ronalds, p. 547 (not in lib.). Bakken 118. Gartrell 578. Ekelöf 279. Poggendorff II. 1337. Sotheran/Zeitlinger, 3rd suppl., no. 1833. $1,200.

Two of the Earliest Monographs on the Newly Discovered Xrays 284. [Xray]. WUNSCHMANN, ERNST (b. 1848). Die Röntgen'schen Xstrahlen. Berlin: F. Schneider, 1896. Offered with: MÜLLER, HUGO (b. 1870). Roentgen's Xstrahlen. Berlin: K. Siegismund, 1896. According to 'Das wreck der bucher eine festschrift für Horst Kliemann zu seinem 60. geburtstag herausgegeben von Fritz Hodeige' (Freiburg, 1956, pp. 5862), Prof. Dr. Wunschmann's booklet was published on 7 Feb. 1896, and the booklet by Müller in its 4. Auflage (i.e. issue) was published on 13 Feb. 1896. These are among the very earliest monographs on the newly discovered xrays of Wilhelm Röntgen (18451923). His first announcement was in the paper accepted 28 Dec. 1895 by the journal of the Physical and Medical Society of Würzburg, and its first reprints were mailed on 1 Jan. 1896. The earliest scientific notices of the discovery appeared in various American and European journals in January and February 1896. Röntgen's second paper on xrays appeared 9 March 1896. These booklets were clearly out before the second Röntgen paper. Wunschmann: Waller 11453, 6th thousand; Waller 11454 & Ekelöf 1681 1896 Swedish trans. Müller: Ekelöf 1674 & 1675 3. & 4. Auflage; Bakken, p. 262 1. Auflage; Waller 11411 & 11412 5. & 6. Auflage. See: D.S.B. (Röntgen) 11: 529531. $1,750.

"…the last of the great natural philosophers…" Young's Masterwork with a Remarkable Provenance History Starting with Maria Edgeworth

285. YOUNG, THOMAS (17731829). A course of lectures on natural philosophy and the mechanical arts. London: J. Johnson, 1807.

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"The English physician and physicist Thomas Young was the last of the great natural philosophers; these scientists who attempted to attain complete knowledge of the stateofart in science. His knowledge is outlined in 'A Course of Lectures…' printed in 1807. This book covering most branches of science includes much original work, such as the modulus of elasticity (Young's Modulus) so important in the theory of elasticity, and the true scientific meaning of the term 'energy'. Appended to his work are four great papers by Young, previously published in the Philosophical Transactions, in which he develops a wave theory of light, the type espoused by Huygens… in which he discovers the principle of light interference, explains the sight defect known as astigmatism, and in general establishes modern principles of physical optics." (Stanitz, 'Sources of Science and Technology', no. 63). See: PMM 259. Maria Edgeworth: "…the famous novelist, and her father…, were ardent supporters of scientific education for women. Despite her literary avocation, it was well known that Maria preferred scientists to literary men. She has a particular interest in astronomy and helped to entertain Sir John Herschel… when he visited Edgeworthstown. …Chemistry was another subject she enjoyed, and Humphry Davy was a welcome visitor… Her major work on science education, on which she again collaborated with her father, was 'Practical Education'." (P. Phillips, 'The scientific lady', 1990, pp. 170176). $6,750.

SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS

"Introduced the Slide Rule in America" Karpinski 286. ABEL, THOMAS (b.1738?). Substensial plain trigonometry, wrought with a slidingrule, with Gunter's lines… And this method apply'd to navigation, and surveying. Phila.: printed and sold for the Author by Andrew Stuart, 1761. The first American book on the slide rule (see: Karpinski, pp. 66 & 69) and one of the first American books of applied science contains on pages 8 and 9 a description of a two foot slidingrule with Gunter's lines A and B and two tables (found in the text on p. 6) on its reverse side. The instrument is illustrated in plate 7 and a number of illustrative problems, including ones in navigation and surveying, are solved with it as well as arithmetically. The Englishman, Thomas Abel, emigrated to Pennsylvania (see text, p. 67) where he had his manual printed in Philadelphia. In the chapters on surveying, Abel notes his indebtedness to a Mr. Henry Grubb of Middleton, Connecticut for his method. Abel remarks in 'To the Reader': "…Printing, Engraving, and Binding cost me near Fiftyfive Pound Sterling: they will find that I am a small Gainer in the end, though I have 830 Books subscribed for. You will not find this Treatise to consist of Collections from other Authors, but the Methods entirely new…" Evans 8777. Rink 575 the first entry under 'Sciences applied to technology: general works'. Wallis, 'Biobiblio. Brit. math.', p. 449. Rare in the marketplace. $5,000. 287. ARTUR, JEANFRANCOIS (b. 1795). Instruction théorique et applications de la régle logarithmique ou á calculs. Paris: CarilianGoeury and V. Dalmont, 1845.

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The first edition of this manual on the use of the slide rule by Gravat was published in 1827. Here the work has been extended to include other forms of his rules with instructions on applications: surfaces, volumes, and trigonometry. Of special interest is the introduction of a section on chemical equivalents, pages 52 to 58 and Table II. Not in the Tomash Lib. Cat. $750.

Early Application of the Micrometer to the Microscope and Telescope 288. BALTHASAR, THEODOR (fl. 170140). Micrometria, hoc est, de micrometrorum tubis opticis sen telescopiis & microscopiis… Erlangen: J. A. Lorber, 1710. "The application of the micrometer to the microscope was first carried out in the mid1670s by the French instrument maker Hautefeuille in his 'Microscope micrométrique', and later by the professor Theodor Balthasar in 1710. …Although Balthasar's 'Micrometria' was reported in 'Journal de Trévoux' in 1710, the micrometer only really attracted interest when the English market took off in the late 1730s. There, Smith (in his massive treatise on optics, 1738) emphasized the instrument's usefulness in microscopical investigations. …Following Balthasar and Hertel, the Germans were active in building micrometers, for instance in Göttingen." (M. J. Ratcliff, 'The quest for the invisible', 2009, pp. 168 & 24). Balthasar was city physicist (Stadtphysikus) and professor of mathematics and physics at the Ritterakademie in Erlangen. Noted in H. & W. de Martin, 'Vier jahrhunderte mikorskop', 1983, p. 27. See: Sotheby's/Macclesfield Sale, no. 292. $2,000. 289. BION, NICOLAS. (c.16521733). Traité de la construction et des principaux usages des instrumens de mathématique. The Hague: Husson…, 1723. This is the handsome printing at The Hague of the much improved second edition (1st ed. Paris, 1709) of Bion's classic treatise on scientific instruments. The book is now offered with additional illustrations, all the plates wellengraved in a larger format on fine, thick paper. D.S.B. 1: 132133. $975.

Early American Broadside Offering Instruments and Apparatus

289a. (BROWN, JOSEPH). Philosophical and chemical apparatus, for the use of colleges, academies and common schools. The subscribers, agents for the sale of Brown's (of Boston) apparatus, illustrative of the physical sciences… No. 57 Statestreet, also at their branch, "Apothecaries' Hall", corner of North Pearlstreet, Albany. Henry Rawls & Co. Albany, May 1836. Joseph Brown advertised in March 1835 that he was late of the firm of Brown & Peirce at 87 Washington St., Boston. In that year Brown published a 48page catalogue which incorporated a Claxton & Wightman catalogue of instruments for hydraulics, pneumatics, etc. The listing in 'Rittenhouse Journal', vol. 2, issue 1, p. 30 notes Joseph Brown and Charles S. Francis established an education bookstore in Boston in 1835. The text here broadcasts that Henry Rawls of Albany "have just received a splendid assortment of instruments… (with) the great improvements recently made by Mr. Brown…" Rawls is noted under Holbrook in 'Rittenhouse Journal', vol. 2, issue 3, p. 94. The ten departments of physical sciences served by Brown's instruments are listed along with 25 instrument types. Finally a list of chemicals is given along with the availability of chemical glassware. No record found of this early American scientific instrument broadside. $775.

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290. N. B. & D. CHAMBERLAIN. A catalogue of pneumatic instruments… with experiments illustrated by numerous engravings and notes. Boston: printed by Isaac R. Butts, 1844. Bound with: A priced catalogue of pneumatic apparatus, manufactured and sold by N. B. & D. Chamberlain. Boston : I. R. Butts, 1844. An important early American catalogue with fine woodcuts of the varied pneumatic apparatus. The priced catalogue is keyed to the figures in the preceding volume. Chamberlain's large rosewood frame air pump, fig. 1, was priced at $150.00. $750.

The Original Filing Papers for Chapin's Patent Adding Machine 291. [CHAPIN, GILBERT W. (18471932)]. Preliminary examination. Report. G. W. Chapin. Improvement in adding machine. (Signedat end) Munn & Co., Solicitors of Patents, Washington 12 July 1869. With: Dept. of Interior, United States Patent Office document dated January 20, 1870 allowing the patent with printed conditions and fee information. Though not a very successful design, Gilbert W. Chapin was granted Patent No. 99,533 on Feb. 8, 1870 for his improved adding machine. Facsimiles of the original schematics filed with the Patent Office are given on page 28 of J.A.V. Turck, 'Origin of modern calculating machines' 1921/1972 reprint, and on pages 29, 30, and 33 are the design features and their shortcomings are discussed. The 'Preliminary Examination Report', conducted by Munn & Co., who were solicitors of patents as well as publishers of 'Scientific American', is of special note since it provides a brief background relating Chapin's proposed improvement to two earlier patents: No.21,236 of S.N. Nuty and No.21,941 of O.L. Castle. Munn & Co. found "sufficient useful novelty" to justify a patent, but in the last paragraph warned Chapin of the usual risks, "viz the existence of a Caveat in the Secret Archives of the Patent Office, pending or rejected applications or the discovery of a similar foreign invention." E. Martin in his newly translated 'The calculating machines (Die Rechenmaschinen) their history and development', 1925/1992, p.64 notes Chapin's patent. It is also noted among other keydriven machines in D. Roegel, 'An overview of Schwilgue's patented adding machines' (S.I.S. Bulletin, no. 126, pp. 1622, 2019. $1,250.

Author's Guide to His Marine Instrument 292. DE GAULLE, JEAN BAPTISTE (17321810). Construction et usage du sillométre. n.p. (Havre), 1782. The author/inventor identifies himself in the cartouche of the fine plate as a marine engineer in Havre, and on the title as a professor of hydrography at Havre. De Gaulle's precision 'Sillometre', one of a number of marine instruments he invented, was made by Chez le Sr. Arnal in Havre and sold at the author's address. De Gaulle also published at Havre in 1779 a treatise on a new azimutal and reflection compass. Poggendorff I. 535. Rare, only two copies in OCLC. $875.

Fine French Treatise on Sundials 293. DE LA PRISE, GERVAIS. Méthode nouvelle et générale pour tracer facilement des cadrans solaires. Caen: P. Le Baron, 1781. Bound with (as required): Principes et usage du comput et de l'art de vérifier les dates. Bayeux: A.J. Nicolle, 1780.

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An attractive copy of a wellillustrated and scarce treatise on sundials by R. Gervais De La Prise, an architect member of Académie Royale de Paris. The first part is a methodical presentation of the principles for constructing sundials, while the second part considers in detail the computation of calendar dates. A copy is in the Lewis Evans Collection (H. Higton, 'Sundials at Greenwich', 2002, p. 454). $1,200.

Dollond's Meteorograph Arnold Guyot's Copy 294. DOLLOND, GEORGE (17741856). Description of the atmospheric recorder, or selfregistering apparatus for the various changes of the barometer, thermometer, hygrometer, electrometer, pluviometer, and evaporator, and of the force and direction of the wind. Arranged and manufactured by G. Dollond… (London, 1846). W. E. K. Middleton in chapter seven of his 'Invention of the meteorological instruments' (1969) covers the development of selfregistering complete weather stations, meteorographs. Middleton includes a fullpage reproduction of the plate here and a discussion of the complex instrument's operation (fig. 7.4 & pp. 256258). He comments: "Instrument makers… occasionally designed and built such instruments. A famous one that was described briefly in 1846 to the British Association by George Dollond of the famous London optical firm. This 'atmospheric recorder' included a barometer, thermometer, hygrometer, electrometer, rain gauge, atmometer, pressure plate anemometer, and windvane. …We know a great deal about this meteorograph because he set it up at the Great Exhibition of 1851…" $1,100.

Author's Copy With Transmittal Letter to His Female Cousins 295. EATON, AMOS (17761842). Prodromus of a practical treatise on the mathematical arts: containing directions for surveying and engineering. Troy, N.Y.: Elias Gates, 1838. Engineering, including surveying, was introduced to the Rensselaer Institute curriculum in 1834 and the 'Prodromus' was derived from Eaton's notes of the course he taught there. D.S.B. 4: 273275. $1,700.

First Complete Surveying Text Published in America 296. GIBSON, ROBERT (171561?). A treatise of practical surveying. Phila.: J. Crukshank, 1785. Bound with (as usual): (Anon.). Tables of difference of latitude and departure. Phila.: J. Crukshank, 1785.

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This is the first complete surveying text to be published in America, a reprint of the fourth edition of Gibson's 'Treatise', Dublin, 1777 "…with alterations and amendments, adapted to the use of American surveyors" (title page). The first edition of this text by the Irish teacher of mathematics and land surveyor, Robert Gibson, was first published at Dublin in 1752. Bound with the 'Practical surveyor', with its own title page, pagination, and dated imprint, are the 'Tables'. These appeared in editions of John Robertson's 'Elements of navigation', reprinted on their own at Dublin in 1770, and first combined with the Gibson in this Philadelphia edition. Interestingly, these tables were added to the later American surveying texts by Zachariah Jess and John Gummere. Highly successful, the 'Treatise' had an edition at Hartford as late as 1840.The first American edition of Gibson is scarce especially in its contemporary binding and in very good condition. Karpinski, p. 8283. 'Early Amer. Sci. & Tech. Lit.', no. 471. Evans 19026. Rink 2371. Wallis, 'Biobiblio. Brit. math', pp. 247 & 251. $1,250.

Seventeenth Century Collection of Clocks and Machines 297. [GROLLIER DE SERVIERE, GASPARD (16761745)]. Recueil d'ouvrages curieux de mathematique et de mecanique, ou description du cabinet de Monsieur Grollier de Serviere. Lyon: David Forey, 1719. This attractive copy of this handsome book describes and illustrates the collection of handiwork, both mathematical and mechanical, designed and made by Nicolas Grollier (15931686), Baron de Serviére, and grandfather of the author. Most familiar is the often illustrated bookwheel (plate 85) as a reading aid. In addition, there are numerous plates of clocks, waterraising machines, water and windmills, bridges, military machinery, fortifications, lamps, rafts, ornamental turning, etc. G.H. Baillie, in his historical bibliography of horology (1951, pp. 153154), refers to the nine plates of clocks (reproducing plate 14) and discusses their historical background. A second edition appeared in 1733. It was reissued with a Paris title page in 1751. Spaulding and Karpinksi 240. Wheeler Gift Cat. 369 (1751 ed.). Horblit Sale no. 494 and Honeyman Sale no. 1560 (both with illus.). $3,250.

Herschel's Analog Calculator Presentation Copy to Oersted 298. HERSCHEL, JOHN (17921871). Description of a machine for resolving by inspection certain important forms of transcendental equations. Cambridge: printed by J. Smith, printer to the University, 1832. H. C. Oersted (17771851) visited England in 1836 "…and he was among those present at the meeting of the British Association at Southampton where he listened to Sir John Herschel state that 'in science there was but one direction which the needle would take, when pointed towards the European continent, and that was towards his esteemed friend, Professor Oersted." (B. Dibner, 'Oersted and the discovery of electromagnetism', N.Y., 1962, p. 62). Herschel and Oersted corresponded from 1825 to 1849. The offprint of this paper on an analog calculator for solving transcendental equations appears to have preceded its journal appearance since Volume 4 of the Transactions was published in 1833. The plate illustrates in detail the calculator Herschel designed with its train of wheels (pulleys) interconnected by wire belts, levers, and divided linear and circular scales. "In an analog device a direct proportion is established between the quantity represented and the position of a sliding or rotating part in a mechanical system…" (W. Aspray, ed., 'Computing before computers', chap. 5, 1990). His pursuit of this topic came from a conversation with Babbage, as the opening sentence indicates, on "…applying machinery to the performance of numerical calculations…", and his current work on "…the elliptical orbits of some of the most remarkable double stars…" Herschel's analog calculator seems to have attracted little attention within the history of the subject which itself has not been comprehensively reviewed. On some general principles see: G. Ifrah, 'The universal history of computing', N.Y., 2001, pp. 154167. $2,000.

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Miniature 18th Century Instrument Trade Manual

299. JONES & SON. A concise explanation of the barometer, etc. With rules for predicting changes of the weather. London: J. Jones and Son, n.d. (c. 1785). A rare trade publication in a very small unusual pocket format by the English instrument maker John Jones in partnership with his son, William. John Jones, Sr. worked on his own from 1759 to 1784. The partnership formed in 1784 and was located at 135 Holborn, as the imprint here shows, and it changed to Jones & Sons in 1790 with the addition of a second son, Samuel. In 1792 William and Samuel became the well known firm of W. & S. Jones (see item 300). The imprint, at the bottom of the second sheet, further reads: "…who make and repair Barometers, Thermometers, Hygrometers, etc, in the best manner, and as low in price as any of the hawkers." The weather rules on the second sheet are noted as extracted from Dr. Halley and Mr. Patrick. $1,500. 300. [JONES, W. and S.]. A catalogue of optical, mathematical, and philosophical instruments, made and sold by W. and S. Jones. London: printed for W. and S. Jones, 1827. Hundreds of instruments and some books are listed and priced by this notable London firm. Included are theodolites and perambulators priced to £10,10s; reflecting telescopes to £1000; best solar microscope £25,4s; Farey's elliptic machine £5,5s; best astronomical transit £105; new large airpump for the production of ice to £84; Kinnersley's electrical air thermometer £1,1s; Magellan's portable table lamp furnace with blowpipe £5,5s; etc. $800. 301. LAURENCE, EDWARD (1690 fl. 1740). The young surveyor's guide: or, a new introduction to the whole art of surveying land. London: James Knapton, 1716. Laurence was a land surveyor and teacher of mathematics and bookkeeping in Northampton. When in London he was at the premises of the globe and map maker, John Senex. "The first original text on surveying published in the eighteenth century… (It was)… published in 1716 and reprinted in 1717. This text discusses surveying in a manner similar to Leybourn's and the better texts of the late seventeenth century." (A. W. Richeson, 'English Land Measuring to 1800', 1966, pp. 150151). A 3rd edition (reprint) appeared in 1736. Taylor II. 216. Wallis, p. 76a. $975. 302. [LEREBOURS]. Notice d'instruments d'optique, de physique, et de mathématiques. Paris: P. Didot, 1818. Pages 24 to 28 carry an 1812 report signed by Arago, Bouvard, and Delambre on Lerebours' achromatic telescopes, and the final page is an extract of an 1816 report by Bouvard, Arago, and Biot on the same subject. The priced catalogue includes a wide range of instruments: Charles megascope, kaleidoscopes, Wollaston camera lucida, Leslie differential thermometer, balance of Sanctorius, graphometers, globes, etc. See: P. Brenni, Bulletin S.I.S., no. 40, pp. 36. $1,100.

Important Early American Ownership 303. LOVE, JOHN (fl. 16881711). Geodaesia: or, the art of surveying and measuring land made easy… As also, How to lay out new lands in America… London: W. Innys, 1744.

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John Love published his 'Geodaesia' in 1688 and for more than a century (thirteen editions) it remained an important text both in the U.K. and America. "Love states that he was impelled to write a treatise on surveying by a desire to help young surveyors in America, whom he had seen trying to lay out lands when their books would not give them any aid in their work, and further that he wished to give new methods of mapping and making soundings of the entrances to rivers and harbors. …Little is known of his early life, but he was a surveyor in North Carolina and Jamaica before returning to England to write his surveying text." (A. W. Richeson, 'English land measuring to 1800: instruments and practices', 1966, pp. 126129 with details on his methods). Taylor I.458. $975.

B. Martin on Dialling 304. MARTIN, BENJAMIN (170482). Horologia nova; or the new art of dialling in theory and practice. …Also, the rationale and use of the lines of latitudes and hours, on the dialingsector and trigon. London: for the Author, 1770. Benjamin Martin, the famous Fleet Street instrument maker, who also lectured and wrote numerous books and pamphlets on instruments, presents with this scarce publication his view that for "…the whole Art to the Construction (of dials)…three different Dials only…" are required. These are: a horizontal, a vertical decliner, and a polar dial, all illustrated in the plate. In addition, Martin describes two aids to dial construction: a dialingsector and a gnomonical trigon, both illustrated diagrammatically in the plate. J. Millburn, 'Benjamin Martin, author, instrumentmaker, and 'country showman', Leyden, 1976 bibliography, p. 204 and noted in text pages 152153. Taylor II. 289. $1,600. 305. MARTIN, BENJAMIN (170482). The description and use of a new, portable, table airpump and condensing engine. With a select variety of capital experiments. London: Gregory and Wright, 1788. Bound with: JONES, W. AND S. A catalogue of optical, mathematical, and philosophical instruments. (London, 1798). This posthumous edition issued by Gregory & Wright of B. Martin's manual on the airpump was preceded by a 1766 first edition. Martin describes the mechanism and operation of his air pump and provides 54 experiments, of which 40 are illustrated in the busy, but well done, folding plate. The priced W. & S. Jones catalog still has their earlier address at 135 Holborn. J. R. Middleton, 'Benjamin Martin', Leyden, 1976, listed on p. 203 of 'Martin's publications'. $1,250.

N & Z's Grand Six Hundred Page Catalogue of Scientific Instruments 306. NEGRETTI & ZAMBRA'S Encyclopaedic illustrated and descriptive reference catalogue of optical, mathematical, physical, photographic and standard meteorological instruments. London, (1885). Negretti & Zambra published one of the great 19th century comprehensive priced instrument catalogs, wellillustrated with text rich in details and scientific information. Henry Negretti and Joseph Warren Zambra began their successful partnership in 1850 at 11 Hatton Garden, London. The Firm continued beyond their deaths (Negretti, 1879; Zambra 1897) as Negretti & Zambra Ltd. They offered a full line of instruments with a specialization in meteorological instruments. $1,400.

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A N T I Q U A R I A N S C I E N T I S T

Early Seventeenth Century English Surveying Text

307. NORDEN, JOHN (15481625). The svrveiors dialogve… London: printed by Thomas Snodham, 1618. Norden's treatise on surveying received three editions in the 17th century: 1607, 1610 (addition of sixth book), and 1618. Though this commentary concentrates on its importance to surveying history, the book is also noted for pointing towards the agrarian roots of English capitalism. "It is the second (and last) surveying text to be written in dialogue form, and consists of a discussion among the surveyor, a farmer, the lord of the manor, a bailiff, and a purchaser." (A. W. Richeson, 'English land measuring to 1800: instruments and practices', 1966). Richeson discusses the land use content of the dialogue in some detail and adds concerning instruments: "…explains for the first time in an English text, the difference between the theodolite and the circumferentor… Norden's survey goes around the entire manor and then around each field using the plane table, although he points out that other instruments may be used. In this discussion he mentions backsighting each station that he has passed. This is the first mention of backsighting in an English text… After giving the necessary geometry relating to various types of figures, the author explains how land area may be found. …His tables, he explains, were taken from the texts of Benese, Leigh, and Digges. …This text is important because of Norden's clear account of the operation of the court of survey and because of his efforts to reconcile the differences between surveyor and tenant. His methods are generally superior to those given by sixteenthcentury writers on surveying." To this edition Norden has added an epistle dated 16 December 1617 to Richard Smith Knight, Surveyor General of the Lands of Prince Charles. Taylor I. 177. Noted in Kiely's history of surveying instruments (1947), pages 106 and 184. $1,400.

The Invention of the Logarithmic Slide Rule 308. OUGHTRED, WILLIAM (15741660). The circles of proportion and the horizontal instrument. Oxford: W. Hall, for R. Davis, 1660. Oughtred's treatise on the slide rule was first published in 1632 for the prominent instrument maker, Elias Allen. The first plate is of Oughtred's circular slide rule. In 1633, the navigation part and Gunter's tables were introduced along with the 'Two Rulers for Calculation'. The plates were extended to eight in number in the 1660 edition. The Second Hollis Professor at Harvard, John Winthrop (171479), owned a copy of this 1660 edition. "Oughtred is generally regarded as the inventor of the circular and rectilinear slide rules. (Though Richard Delamain, one of Oughtred's pupils, published a description two years earlier.), Oughtred's claim to priority in the invention of the rectilinear slide rule… is beyond dispute, since it is known that he had designed the instrument as early as 1621." (D.S.B.). See: F. Cajori's joint works on the slide rule published by the Astragel Press, 1994. Tomash Lib. O39. Taylor I. 94. $2,850.

Ozanam's Rare Second Book A Treatise on Sundials in a Binding by Louis XV's Binder

309. OZANAM, JACQUES (16401717). Traité de gnomonique, ou de la construction des cadrans sur toute sore de plans. Paris: C. Cramoisy, 1673.

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The very scarce, especially so in a fine contemporary binding, of the first appearance of this prolific author's book on sundials, a successful publication which was republished into the mid18th century. Ozanam is best known for his 'Recreations mathématiques', a popular work in four volumes first published in 1694 and reprinted and translated into the 19th century. Houzeau & Lancaster 11521. A. J. Turner, "Mostra di una collezione veneta, Ritmi del cielo e misura del tempo" (1985), no. 87 (date and plate count are incorrect). Poggendorff II. 342. Sotheran/Zeitlinger, 1st suppl., no. 2918. $2,000.

Large, Handsome Treatise on the Uses of the Armillary Sphere 310. PAPPIANI, ALBERTO (170990). Della sfera armillare e dell'uso di essa nella astronomia nautica, e gnomonica. Florence: A. Bonducci, 1745. Pappiani, Professor of Philosophy and Mathematics in the College of Florence, published this ornate treatise on instruction in the use of the armillary sphere both in nautical astronomy and with sundials at Florence in 1745. In his preface, Pappiani has provided an interesting detailed chronology of astronomy, geography, chronology, navigation, and dialing from 1590 to 1745. The handsome pictorial vignettes depict constellations, astronomical scenes, and instruments. Riccardi I. 245 "Bella edizione". Sotheran/Zeitlinger, 2nd suppl., no. 3622. $2,250.

Jesse Ramsden's ThirtySix Inch Theodolite 311. ROY, WILLIAM (172690). An account of the trigonometrical operation, whereby the distance between the meridians of the observatories of Greenwich and Paris has been determined. (London, 1790). The 36inch theodolite built by the great English instrument maker, Jesse Ramsden (17351800), for General Roy's triangulation in 1787 is illustrated in a number of the excellent plates in this handsome volume. It was "one of the earliest instruments to bear superior circular divisions, conical spoke bracings, and microscopes…. Though this was not the first fullcircular instrument commenced by Ramsden, it was the first to become operational and be described. It was built to survey with critical accuracy the longitudes between the Greenwich and Paris Observatories. …Though the success of the survey cannot be wholly ascribed to the quality of the theodolite, the instrument was of great importance in establishing a revised GreenwichParis longitude value of 2°19'5". The angles for Roy's 16 triangles were found to be accurate to within just over a second." (A. Chapman, 'Dividing the circle', 1995). Poggendorff II. 708. $1,500.

Special Copy of the First Treatment of Champlain's Lost Astrolabe 312. RUSSELL, ALEXANDER J. (180787). On Champlain's astrolabe, lost on the 7th June 1613, and found in August 1867…Montreal: printed by the BurlandDesbarats Lith. Co., 1879.

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A. J. Russell's 'Preface' states: "…I have been induced by the flattering recommendation of a few friends to have a very limited edition of it published…" According to Russell, Champlain's astrolabe, dated 1603, was found on the River Ottawa in Ross, Ontario by Captain Overman's people in 1613. See: A. Stimson, 'The mariner's astrolabe a survey of known, surviving sea astrolabes', 1988, NMM 8, pp. 7273. $2,000. 313. SIMMS, FREDERICK W. (17931860). A treatise on the principal mathematical instruments used in surveying, levelling, & astronomy: explaining their construction, adjustments, and use. London: for the Author, 1836. The important, authoritative manual on scientific instruments with Troughton & Simms valuable priced catalogue. SIMMS, WILLIAM. The achromatic telescope, and its various mountings, especially for equatorial. London: Troughton and Simms, 1852. Bound with: Catalogue of instruments made by Troughton and Simms. London: n.d. (c.1852). A useful book on the telescope from the important nineteenth century scientific instrument makers coupled with their priced catalogue. $750.

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REFERENCES (item nos.) Grolier/Science 100 58, 68, 69, 116, 18, 139b, 154, 179, 254, 267 Heralds of Science 1, 58, 68, 69, 84, 116, 126, 138, 140, 150, 179, 193, 254,267 PMM 126, 138, 231, 251, 267 Milestones of Science 1, 9, 10, 10a, 46, 67, 68, 93, 116, 125, 126, 134, 138, 159, 179, 251, 254 AUTHORS (item nos.) Abel 286 Abraham 282 Adams 1 Agassiz 105 Agnesi 168 Airy 218 Aldini 219 Ampére 107 Amussat 119 Arrhenius 21 Artur 287 Babbage 192 Balthasar 288 Baltzer 193 Bancroft 22 Barneveld 220 Bartaloni 221 Baumé 23 Baumhauser 84 Beccari 24 Beccaria 222 Becquerel, A.C. 223 Becquerel, H. 224 Béguyer de Chancourtois 84 Bell 120 Bergman 25, 26 Bernoulli, D. 225 Bernoulli, J. 226 Berthelon 121 Bertrand 122 Berzelius 27,28 Bion 289 Black 29, 30 Boerhaave 31, 32 Bolzano 169 Bonola 193 Boole 170 Borelli 227 Bouelles 171 Bouguer 228, 230 Boyle 33, 107a, 122b Brillouin 232 Brodie 123 Broglie, L. 231, 232, 233

Broglie, M. 233 Brongniart 124 Brooke 1a Brown 289a Bruns 189 Bryan 234 Butlerov 34 Cahours 84 Cannizzaro 35 Capron 36 Carey 37 Carnelley 84 Carnot 172 Carpue 235 Cauchy 173, 236 Cavallo 38 Cavendish 39 Chamberlain 290 Chapin 291 Chaptal 40 Chevreul 42,43 Clarke 60 Clausius 237 Clavius 174 Cleaveland 110 Costard 2 Cotes 175, 238 Crousaz 176 Cuvier 125, 126 Daguerre 216 Dalton 44, 45 Dana 110a Darwin 127 Davisson 233 Davy 46, 47, 47a, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52 De Gaulle 292 Delafield 152 De La Prise 293 De Latil 272a De Morgan 177 Desaguliers 239 Dexter 53 Dollond 294 Dossie 54

Draper 240 Dupin 178 Dutrochet 128 Eaton 295 Eigen 129 Eiseley 130 Eliot 105 Elliott 131 Ellis 55 Engelman 241 Euler 179, 180, 242 Faraday 10 Felix 132 Fermi 243 Franklin 244 Frischauf 193 Fuller 272a Gassendi 3 Galileo 3, 181 Gauss 245 GayLussac 56 Gemma 4 Geoffroy St. Hilaire 133 Gerhardt 57 Germer 233 Gibbs 58, 58a, 58b, 182 Gibson 296 Glaisher 246 Goethe 134 Graaf 135, 136 Grandi 183 Griffin 59 Grollier De Serviere 297 Grove 247 Guyton de Morveau 67, 137 Hales 138 Halsted 193 Hamilton, W. 184 Hamilton, W.R. 185 Hare 60 Hartley 139 Harvey 139a Haüy 111, 248 Heaviside 249 Helmholtz 139b

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Hemmer 281 Henry, T. 30 Henry, W. 61 Hermann 250 Herschel 192, 298 Hertz 251 Hilbert 186 Hinrichs 84 Hofmeister 140 Hoüel 193 Huggins 5 Hunt 216a Hunter 141, 142 Hutton, C. 108 Hutton, J. 62 Izarn 6 Jacobs 63 Jacquin 64 Jones & Son 299 Jones, W. & S. 300 Kagan 193 Katona 7 Kayser 65 Kelvin 252 Kepler 3, 8, 9 Kircher 253 Kirchhoff 189 Klein 187, 188 Kronecker 189 Kummer 189 La Chastre 66 Lacroix 190, 191, 192 Lagrange 254 Lamarck 66a, 143 Lamétherie 112 Langenbucher 255 Langevin 282 Laplace 10, 10a, 194 Latham 152 Laurence 301 Lavoisier 67, 68 Le Clerc 144 Le Grand 255a Lehmann 70 Lemercier 216 Lerebours 302 Liebig 69, 88 Linnaeus 145 Lloyd 245 Lobachevsky 193 Lorentz 256

Love 303 Lowell 11, 12 Lyons 195 Macbride 71 Macintosh 152 Maclaurin 196, 197 Macquer 72 Macvicar 257 Magendie 146 Manning 193 Marat 258, 259 Mariotte 260 Marcellini 113 Martin 304, 305 Mascheroni 198 Massa 147 Maupertuis 261 Maxwell 262 Mayer 13 Meigs 152 Mendeleev 84 Meyen 148 Meyer, J.F. 73 Meyer, J.L. 84 Mihles 149 Mitchill 74 Möbius 199 Mohl 150, 151 Monge 75 Morey 262a Morton, S.G. 152 Morton, W.T.G. 153 Muir 84 Müller, H. 284 Müller, J. 154 Nebel 14 Negretti & Zambra 306 Neri 76 Nernst 77 Neumann 78 Newlands 84 Newton, I. 264 Newton, J. 200 Nicholson 79 Nicols 114 Nieuwentyt 155 Noll 80 Norden 307 Nott 152 Nuck 156 Otis 157

Oughtred 308 Ozanam 309 Pander 158 Pappiani 310 Pasteur 81, 159 Payen 82, 83 Peirce 201 Perrin 85, 86 Piazzi 15 Piccard 193 Piccolomini 16 Playfair 17 Poincaré 18, 193, 202 Poisson 203 Poncelet 265 Pott 160 Priestley 87 Ramsay 84 Raspail 88 Redi 266 Reece 89 Reinitzer 70 Rey 90 Ridgway 160a Riemann 204, 205 Robins 206 Roe 207 Roy 311 Rumford 269, 270, 271 Runge, C. 65 Runge, F.F. 91 Ruschenberger 152 Rush 161 Russel 312 Rutherford 267 Sabatier 92 Saccheri 193 Sarrus 208 Saussure 93 Scheele 94, 94a Schwarz 209 Schwerd 272 Sergeant 109 Shakerley 210 Shannon 272a Shepard 95, 115 Sigaud De La Fond 273, 274 Silliman 60 Simms 313 Simpson 211

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Slare 96 Smeaton 275 Smith, R. 276 Smith, S.S. 161 Smyth 19 Soemmerring 162 Somerville, D.M.Y. 193 Somerville, M. 20 Stas 97 Steiner 212 Steno 116 Stewart 213 Stokes 277 Sturgeon 278 Sulzer 268 Svedberg 98 Tarin 163 Thenard 56, 99 Thomson, J.J. 267 Thomson, T. 52 Tiedemann 164 Treviranus 165 Trommsdorff 100

Tyndall 166 Underwood 167 Varignon 214, 279 Varley 280 Vasiliev 193 Viviani 181 Volta 101 Wallerius 102, 116a Wallis 215 Weber 245 Webster 217 White 103 Williams 106, 281 Wilson, C.T.R. 282 Wilson, G. 104 Winkler 283 Woodward 117 Wunschmann 284 Wurtz 84 Young 285


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